Research Index | Medline Index


Cannabis Research - Gateway theory


Id Code
87289409
Authors
Voss HL, Clayton RR
Title
Stages in involvement with drugs.
Source
Pediatrician
Date
1987
Issue
14(1-2)
Pages
25-31
Abstract
There are distinct stages in involvement with drugs, and data obtained in the 1985 National Household Survey on Drug Abuse are presented to show the extent to which people follow these stages. Cigarette smoking usually precedes consumption of alcoholic beverages, and use of these licit substances precedes use of marijuana and cocaine.

Id Code
95387217
Authors
Werch CE, Anzalone D
Title
Stage theory and research on tobacco, alcohol, and other drug use. [Review]
Source
Journal of Drug Education
Date
1995
Issue
25(2)
Pages
81-98
Abstract
The purpose of this article was to examine the conceptual and empirical foundations of individual drug use stage development and progression related to tobacco, alcohol, and drugs. This review indicated that while greater acceptance of the idea that drug use is a complex process, the majority of stage conceptualizations suffer from significant limitations. Although limited, research conducted to date is supportive of the existence of intra-drug use stages of acquisition for cigarettes and other drugs. Research examining inter-drug use progression among youth supports the idea of a generally invariant sequence at a macro-sequential level, involving nonuse to legal drug use, marijuana use, and finally other illegal drug use.
References
64

Id Code
93022714
Authors
Kandel DB, Yamaguchi K, Chen K
Title
Stages of progression in drug involvement from adolescence to adulthood: further evidence for the gateway theory.
Source
Journal of Studies on Alcohol
Date
1992 Sep
Issue
53(5)
Pages
447-57
Abstract
Sequential stages of involvement in alcohol and/or cigarettes, marijuana, other illicit drugs and medically prescribed psychoactive drugs from adolescence to adulthood are investigated in a longitudinal cohort that has been followed from ages 15 to 35. Alternative models of progression are tested for their goodness of fit. Four stages are identified: that of legal drugs, alcohol or cigarettes; marijuana; illicit drugs other than marijuana; and medically prescribed drugs. Whereas progression to illicit drugs among men is dependent upon prior use of alcohol, among women either cigarettes or alcohol is a sufficient condition for progression to marijuana. Age of onset and frequency of use at a lower stage of drug use are strong predictors of further progression.

Authors
- Clark DB, Kirisci L, Moss HB
Title
- Early adolescent gateway drug use in sons of fathers with substance use disorders [In Process Citation]
Language
- Eng
Date
- 1998 Jul-Aug
Issue
- 0306-4603
Source
- Addict Behav
Pages
- 561-6
Country
- ENGLAND
Abstract
- This study determined the relevance of preadolescent psychopathology and substance use for predicting early adolescent alcohol and cannabis involvement in boys of fathers with and without substance use disorders (SUD). Fathers of preadolescent boys (ages 10 through 12 years) were recruited to represent families of boys with paternal SUD (High Risk or HR: N = 102) and boys without paternal SUD (Low Average Risk or LAR: n = 166). These boys and a parental informant participated in semistructured diagnostic interviews at baseline and 2-year follow-up assessments (ages 12 through 14 years). Preadolescent tobacco experimentation and early adolescent regular alcohol use were more prevalent in HR than in LAR subjects. Logistic regression analyses were utilized to develop prediction equations. The prescence of oppositional defiant disorder and the absence of anxiety disorders predicted preadolescent tobacco use. Preadolescent conduct disorder predicted early adolescent regular alcohol use. Preadolescent tobacco use and conduct disorder were highly predictive of early adolescent cannabis use, achieving 100% sensitivity with 76% specificity. Children with tobacco use prior to adolescence, as well as those with disruptive behavior disorders, may be important to target for interventions to prevent cannabis use.
Research Institute
- Center for Education and Drug Abuse Research (CEDAR), USA. clark@paarc00.wpic.pitt.edu
Source
- Addict Behav 1998 Jul-Aug;23(4):561-6

Authors
- Mackesy-Amiti ME, Fendrich M, Goldstein PJ
Title
- Sequence of drug use among serious drug users: typical vs atypical progression.
Language
- Eng
Date
- 1997 May 2
Issue
- 0376-8716
Source
- Drug Alcohol Depend
Pages
- 185-96
Country
- IRELAND
Abstract
- Sequence of drug use was examined in a secondary analysis of two samples of serious drug users: one of 152 men and one of 133 women. The proportions of drug users following specified patterns of drug use onset were compared to proportions obtained in previous research in samples of high school youth, and serious drug users. The serious drug users were substantially different from high school samples in their progression of drug use. The serious drug users were less likely to follow the typical sequence identified in previous studies (alcohol, then marijuana, followed by other illicit drugs). They were more likely to have used marijuana before using alcohol, and more likely to have used other illicit drugs before using marijuana. We also found that atypical sequencing was associated with earlier initiation of the use of illicit drugs other than marijuana and greater lifetime drug involvement. These findings suggest that for a large number of serious drug users, marijuana does not play the role of a 'gateway drug'. We conclude that prevention efforts which focus on alcohol and marijuana may be of limited effectiveness for youth who are at risk for serious drug abuse.
Research Institute
- Department of Psychiatry, University of Illinois at Chicago, IL 60612, USA.
Source
- Drug Alcohol Depend 1997 May 2;45(3):185-96