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Cannabis Research - Biochemical and genetic effects


Authors
Sauer MA, Rifka SM, Hawks RL, Cutler GB Jr, Loriaux DL
Title
Marijuana: interaction with the estrogen receptor.
Source
Journal of Pharmacology & Experimental Therapeutics
Date
1983 Feb
Issue
224(2)
Pages
404-7
Abstract
Crude marijuana extract competed with estradiol for binding to the estrogen receptor of rat uterine cytosol. Condensed marijuana smoke also competed with estradiol for its receptor. Pure delta 9-tetrahydrocannabinol, however, did not interact with the estrogen receptor. Ten delta 9-tetrahydrocannabinol metabolites also failed to compete with estradiol for its receptor. Of several other common cannabinoids tested, only cannabidiol showed any estrogen receptor binding. This was evident only at very high concentrations of cannabidiol. Apigenin, the aglycone of a flavinoid phytoestrogen found in cannabis, displayed high affinity for the estrogen receptor. To assess the biological significance of these receptor data, estrogen activity was measured in vivo with the uterine growth bioassay, using immature rats. Cannabis extract in large doses exhibited neither estrogenic nor antiestrogenic effects. Thus, although estrogen receptor binding activity was observed in crude marijuana extract, marijuana smoke condensate and several known components of cannabis, direct estrogenic activity of cannabis extract could not be demonstrated in vivo.

Authors
Hatoum NS, Davis WM, Elsohly MA, Turner CE
Title
Perinatal exposure to cannabichromene and delta 9-tetrahydrocannabinol: separate and combined effects on viability of pups and on male reproductive system at maturity.
Source
Toxicology Letters
Date
1981 May
Issue
8(3)
Pages
141-6
Abstract
The effects of cannabichromene (CBC), delta 9-tetrahydrocannabinol (delta 9-THC) and their combination (all doses 50 mg/kg orally) were determined after being administered to female mice for 7 days beginning on the 20th day of gestation. The THC treatment reduced postnatal viability, impaired male reproductive behavior at maturity and significantly reduced seminal vesicle weights. No changes from control values occurred after CBC or CBC + THC. Thus, CBC alone at this dosage did not act like THC; moreover, it antagonized the effects of THC when the two were given in combination.

Authors
Hannerz J, Hindmarsh T
Title
Neurological and neuroradiological examination of chronic cannabis smokers.
Source
Annals of Neurology
Date
1983 Feb
Issue
13(2)
Pages
207-10
Abstract
Twelve subjects, eight male and four female, who had smoked on average more than 1 gm of cannabis daily for 10 years, were investigated with a clinical neurological examination and computed tomography (CT) of the brain. No subject had a history of major head trauma or cerebral infection, and just one abused alcohol. Only the subject with a history of alcoholism showed any abnormal cerebral function on clinical tests or any abnormality in the CT scan, compared with normal controls.

Authors
Jorgensen K, Wulf HC, Husum B, Niebuhr E
Title
Sister-chromatid exchanges in cannabis smokers.
Source
Mutation Research
Date
1991 Nov
Issue
261(3)
Pages
193-5
Abstract
The genotoxicity of cannabis smoking was evaluated by means of the sister-chromatid exchange (SCE) test. The SCE test is considered to be a sensitive tool for the discovery of genotoxic agents in the environment. Twenty-two tobacco smokers and 22 persons smoking both tobacco and cannabis were compared. Our findings showed that smoking in itself enhanced the SCE level significantly (18.5%) compared to a group of non-smokers, but adding smoking of cannabis to tobacco smoking did not affect the SCE level further. Based on our observations cannabis smoking could not be considered genotoxic.

Authors
Westlake TM, Howlett AC, Ali SF, Paule MG, Scallet AC, Slikker W Jr
Title
Chronic exposure to delta 9-tetrahydrocannabinol fails to irreversibly alter brain cannabinoid receptors.
Source
Brain Research
Date
1991 Mar 22
Issue
544(1)
Pages
145-9
Abstract
The effects of chronic delta 9-tetrahydrocannabinol (delta 9-THC) and marijuana administration on the properties of brain cannabinoid receptor populations of the rat and monkey, respectively, were examined in this study. It was determined that the properties of the cannabinoid receptors in the striatum, cerebral cortex, cerebellum, hippocampus, and brainstem/spinal cord of the rat do not appear to be irreversibly altered by chronic exposure to delta 9-THC. Similarly, the cannabinoid receptors in the caudate, prefrontal cortex, and cerebellum of the monkey do not appear to be irreversibly altered by chronic exposure to marijuana smoke.

Authors
Hayes JS, Lampart R, Dreher MC, Morgan L
Title
Five-year follow-up of rural Jamaican children whose mothers used marijuana during pregnancy.
Source
West Indian Medical Journal
Date
1991 Sep
Issue
40(3)
Pages
120-3
Abstract
This research provides data on the development of 59 Jamaican children, from birth to age 5 years, whose mothers used marijuana during pregnancy. Approximately one-half of the sample used marijuana during pregnancy and were matched with non-users according to age, parity, and socioeconomic status. Testing of the children was done at 1, 3, and 30 days of age with the Brazelton Neonatal Behavioral Assessment Scales and at ages 4 and 5 years with the McCarthy Scales of Children's Abilities. Data about the child's home environment and temperament were collected from direct observations as well as from standardized questionnaires. The results show no significant differences in developmental testing outcomes between children of marijuana-using and non-using mothers except at 30 days of age when the babies of users had more favourable scores on two clusters of the Brazelton Scales: autonomic stability and reflexes. The developmental scores at ages 4 and 5 years were significantly correlated to certain aspects of the home environment and to regularity of basic school (preschool) attendance.

Authors
Block RI, Farinpour R, Schlechte JA
Title
Effects of chronic marijuana use on testosterone, luteinizing hormone, follicle stimulating hormone, prolactin and cortisol in men and women.
Source
Drug & Alcohol Dependence
Date
1991 Aug
Issue
28(2)
Pages
121-8
Abstract
To investigate possible effects of chronic marijuana use on reproductive and stress hormones, we assayed testosterone, luteinizing hormone, follicle stimulating hormone, prolactin, and cortisol in 93 men and 56 women with a mean (+/- S.E.) age of 23.5 +/- 0.4 years. Hormone values were compared among groups of subjects stratified according to frequency of marijuana use (frequent, moderate and infrequent; N = 27, 18, and 30, respectively) and non-using controls (N = 74). Chronic marijuana use showed no significant effect on hormone concentrations in either men or women.

Id Code
76109134
Authors
Cushman P Jr
Title
Plasma testosterone levels in healthy male marijuana smokers.
Source
American Journal of Drug & Alcohol Abuse
Date
1975
Issue
2(2)
Pages
269-75
Abstract
Plasma testosterone, FSH, and LH levels were obtained from 25 healthy consecutive heterosexual male mauijuana smoking university students. All values were within the range of normal and the means did not differ significantly from those of 13 normal controls. These data suggest that the casual marijuana smoker (at least one time weekly with an average of 5.1 joints per week) may have plasma testosterone levels which are normal for the time of day and the laboratory.

Id Code
76013811
Authors
Fleischman RW, Hayden DW, Rosenkrantz H, Braude MC
Title
Teratologic evaluation of delta9-tetrahydrocannabinol in mice, including a review of the literature.
Source
Teratology
Date
1975 Aug
Issue
12(1)
Pages
47-50
Abstract
Pregnant CD1 mice received 5, 15, 50, 150 mg/kg/day of delta9-THC in sesame oil on days 6-15 of gestation orally by gavage and were killed about one day before expected delivery. Treatment had no effect on the maternal weight gain, prenatal mortality rate, fetal weight, and the frequency of gross external, internal, and skeletal abnormalities.

Id Code
77090139
Authors
Rachelefsky GS, Opelz G
Title
Normal lymphocyte function in the presence of delta-9-tetrahydrocannabinol.
Source
Clinical Pharmacology & Therapeutics
Date
1977 Jan
Issue
21(1)
Pages
44-6
Abstract
Delta-9-tetrahydrocannabinol (delta-9-THC), the psychoactive component of marijuana, in concentrations of 0.6 X 10(-4) M to 10.6 X 10(-4) M, has no effect on the deoxyribonucleic acid (DNA) synthesis of resting normal human lymphocytes or on their responses to phytohemagglutinin or to allogeneic lymphocytes.

Id Code
77006833
Authors
Rachelefsky GS, Opelz G, Mickey MR, Lessin P, Kiuchi M, Silverstein MJ, Stiehm ER
Title
Intact humoral and cell-mediated immunity in chronic marijuana smoking.
Source
Journal of Allergy & Clinical Immunology
Date
1976 Oct
Issue
58(4)
Pages
483-90
Abstract
The immune system of 12 healthy chronic marijuana-smoking adults was evaluated while they smoked marijuana daily for 64 consecutive days under controlled hospitalized conditions. Studies included enumeration of B and T cell subpopulations, lymphocyte proliferative responses to PHA and to allogeneic cells, and serum immunoglobulin levels. Percent B cells, initially low in 2 patients, became normal. Baseline total B cells, determined either by surface immunoglobulins (338 cells/mm3 +/- 60 SEM) or complement receptors (162 cells/mms +/- 27) were significantly (p less than 0.05) less than control but increased to normal (485 +/- 97 and 239 +/- 47) over time. Percent T cells, initially low (less than 40%) in 4 patients, became normal. Baseline T cells (951 cells/mm3 +/- 70 SEM), significantly lower than controls (2,010 +/- 210, p less than 0.05), increased to normal by day 63 (1,875 +/- 281). In vitro lymphocyte response to graded doses of PHA and to allogeneic cells was normal initially and did not change over time. Serum IgG (1,064 +/- 33), IgA (166 +/- 13), and IgM (96 +/- 6) were normal. Serum IgE levels increased in 4 subjects without evidence of allergy. Short-term chronic marijuana use does not have a substantial adverse effect on B or T cells of young healthy adults.

Id Code
78226645
Authors
Zimmerman AM, Stich H, San R
Title
Nonmutagenic action of cannabinoids in vitro.
Source
Pharmacology
Date
1978
Issue
16(6)
Pages
333-43
Abstract
Under the specific conditions reported for the separate tests delta9-tetrahydrocannabinol (THC) did not elicit a mutagenic response in microbial and eukaryotic in vitro test systems. THC treatment to histidine auxotrophs of Salmonella typhimurium strains TA 98 (susceptible to frame shift mutation) and TA 100 (susceptible to base pair substitution) were investigated. Analysis for possible revertance in the presence and absence of S9 microsomal activation system indicated an absence of induction of gene mutation. Cultured fibroblasts from healthy individuals and DNA repair deficient Xeroderma pigmentosum patients display similar survival activity upon exposure to THC. There was no observable increase in the number of chromosome breaks or chromatid exchanges following exposure to THC or THC plus S9 microsomal fraction. THC, 11-OHdelta9-THC, cannabinol, and cannabidiol did not induce unscheduled DNA repair synthesis in cultured human fibroblasts. Moreover, THC did not suppress UV-induced DNA repair synthesis.

Id Code
77212873
Authors
Matsuyama SS, Yen FS, Jarvik LF, Sparkes RS, Fu TK, Fisher H, Reccius N, Frank IM
Title
Marijuana exposure in vivo and human lymphocyte chromosomes.
Source
Mutation Research
Date
1977 Apr
Issue
48(2)
Pages
255-65
Abstract
Sequential chromosome examinations of peripheral lymphocte cultures were carried out on 21 adult male volunteers who smoked natural blend marijuana cigarettes containing about 1%, 2%, or no delta9-THC. For a limited number of subjects, blood samples from a single venipuncture were cultured independently in two cytogenetic laboratories, and later the slides were exchaged for re-analysis. There were significant differences between laboratories in the absolute break frequencies recorded. These inter-laboratory differences were demonstrated for both techniques of cell culture and metaphase analysis. Neither laboratory found a statistically significant increase in break frequencies asssociated with marijuana smoking. The present study, therefore, failed to detect a measurable effect of marijuana smoking on chromosomal aberrations in subjects experienced in the use of the drug.

Id Code
77204227
Authors
Tashkin DP, Levisman JA, Abbasi AS, Shapiro BJ, Ellis NM
Title
Short-term effects of smoked marihuana on left ventricular function in man.
Source
Chest
Date
1977 Jul
Issue
72(1)
Pages
20-6
Abstract
The short-term effects of smoking one to three marihuana cigarettes (900 mg of marihuana per cigarette; 2.2% delta9-tetrahydrocannabinol) on left ventricular performance were evaluated in 21 experienced users of cannabis at different times during a 94-day in-hospital study of the biologic effect of daily heavy smoking of marihuana. In six subjects, cardiac output was determined using the indocyanine-green dye-dilution technique; and in two of these individuals and 15 additional subjects, cardiac output, ejection fraction, preejection period (PEP), left ventricular ejection time (LVET), and the velocity of circumferential fiber shortening (Vcf) were determined using echocardiograms, phonocardiograms, and carotid pulse recordings. Following the smoking of one to three marihuana cigarettes, the heart rate rose 16 to 53 percent, cardiac output rose 4 to 9 percent, stroke volume did not change or fell slightly, and ejection fraction, PEP/LVET, and did not change, except for a slight increase in Vcf (15%) after three marihuana cigarettes, which could be accounted for by the associated increase in heart rate (53%). These findings suggest that in long-term heavy users of cannabis, marihuana has no significant effect on myocardial contractility independent of its effect on heart rate.

Id Code
77121452
Authors
Kuehnle J, Mendelson JH, Davis KR, New PF
Title
Computed tomographic examination of heavy marijuana smokers.
Source
JAMA
Date
1977 Mar 21
Issue
237(12)
Pages
1231-2
Abstract
Computed tomographic scans were obtained from 19 men with long histories of heavy marijuana smoking and who were also observed to smoke large amounts of marijuana under research ward conditions. The ventricular system and subarachnoid spaces were normal in size and showed no indication of atrophic change.

Id Code
77121451
Authors
Co BT, Goodwin DW, Gado M, Mikhael M, Hill SY
Title
Absence of cerebral atrophy in chronic cannabis users. Evaluation by computerized transaxial tomography.
Source
JAMA
Date
1977 Mar 21
Issue
237(12)
Pages
1229-30
Abstract
Computerized transaxial tomography (CTT) studies of 12 young men having histories of heavy cannabis smoking revealed no evidence of cerebral atrophy.

Id Code
79249634
Authors
Sofia RD, Strasbaugh JE, Banerjee BN
Title
Teratologic evaluation of synthetic delta 9-tetrahydrocannabinol in rabbits.
Source
Teratology
Date
1979 Jun
Issue
19(3)
Pages
361-6
Abstract
Synthetic delta 9-tetrahydrocannabinol (THC) was dissolved in undiluted propylene glycol and administered in daily subcutaneous doses of 15.0, 30.0 or 60.0 mg/kg to pregnant New Zealand white rabbits on days 7--19 of gestation. Maternal food consumption and weight gain were markedly reduced at all dose levels. Embryotoxicity and embryocidal effects were observed in the form of reduced litter weight and number of viable fetuses, respectively, in offspring from pregnant mothers treated with THC. However, on the basis of extensive external, visceral and skeletal examination of all fetuses it may be concluded that THC is not teratogenic in the New Zealand white strain rabbit following subcutaneous administration of doses as high as 60.0 mg/kg/day during the critical period of organogenesis (days 7--19 of gestation). On the other hand, an oral dose of thalidomide (200.0 mg/kg/day), the positive control used in this study, was both embryocidal and teratogenic.

Id Code
79202745
Authors
Virgo BB
Title
The estrogenicity of delta-9-tetrahydrocannabinol (THC): THC neither blocks nor induces ovum implantation, nor does it effect uterine growth.
Source
Research Communications in Chemical Pathology & Pharmacology
Date
1979 Jul
Issue
25(1)
Pages
65-77
Abstract
The estrogenicity of THC was assessed in three estrogen-sensitive systems. The drug did not block implantation when injected (s.c.) on Day 0 of pregnancy: on Day 6, 95% (3 mg/kg) and 86% (12 mg/kg) of the mice had embryos as did 96% (P greater than 0.1) of the controls; implantation occurred in only 9% (P less than 0.005) of mice treated similarly with estradiol (E2; 0.15 mg/kg). Nor did THC induce implantation: pregnant mice were ovariectomized on Day 1, treated daily with progesterone (2 mg, s.c.) and injected (i.p.) with THC on Day 3: at mg THC/kg 39% had embryos, as did 41% of those at 6 mg/kg; these rates do not differ (P greater than 0.99) from that of the controls (38%); in contrast, ova implanted in 75% (P less than 0.025) of E2-treated mice (4.0 microgram/kg). The average number of implanting ova was the same in all groups in both experiments. THC did not cause uterine hypertrophy: ovariectomized mice were injected (s.c.) for 14 days with THC (3 or 6 mg/kg) or E2(2 microgram/kg): the uterine weight, total uterine protein and total uterine glycogen of the ovariectomized controls was 24 +/- 2 mg, 3 +/- 0.3 mg and 11 +/- 3 mg respectively and the values for the THC-treated mice were not different (P greater than 0.05); in contrast, E2 increased (P less than 0.01) uterine weight to 139 +/- 9 mg, uterine protein to 5 +/- 0.6 mg and uterine glycogen to 62 +/- 8 mg. It is concluded that THC is not estrogenic.

Id Code
79003112
Authors
Ray R, Mohan D, Prabhu GG, Nath LM, Neki JS
Title
Psychosocial correlates of chronic cannabis use.
Source
Drug & Alcohol Dependence
Date
1978 Jul
Issue
3(4)
Pages
235-41
Abstract
The psychosocial effects of chronic heavy use of cannabis were studied in a rural population of males in north India. The user group comprised thirty persons who had been taking only cannabis at least 11 times a month over a period of five years or more. The controls were fifty subjects selected from among the general population to which the users belonged. The controls had not been using any drugs. The subjects had similar age distribution, occupation, socioeconomic status, and educational background. Psychosocial adaptation was assessed by enquiries into such areas as self-aspiration, present occupation, occupational satisfaction, marital status, marital relationships, sexual behaviour, self-reported deviant behaviour, and future planning for children. On no variable were the present users found to be different from the non-user control group.

Id Code
78255843
Authors
Kosersky DS
Title
Antihypertensive effects of delta9-tetrahydrocannabinol.
Source
Archives Internationales de Pharmacodynamie et de Therapie
Date
1978 May
Issue
233(1)
Pages
76-81
Abstract
Repeated oral administration of delta9-tetrahydrocannabinol (delta9-THC, 25 mg/kg) reduced systolic blood pressure in conscious spontaneously hypertensive rats. Tolerance to the antihypertensive actions of delta9-THC failed to develop during the 10-day treatment period. The failure of delta9-THC to alter blood pressure in normotensive rats suggests that the hypotensive action of delta9-THC is dependent, in part, on baseline blood pressure.

Id Code
78127150
Authors
Van Went GF
Title
Mutagenicity testing of 3 hallucinogens: LSD, psilocybin and delta 9-THC, using the micronucleus test.
Source
Experientia
Date
1978 Mar 15
Issue
34(3)
Pages
324-5
Abstract
Using the micronucleus test as a screening method for mutagenic activity, no significant increase in the number of micronuclei was found when LSD, psilocybin or delta 9-THC were administered in 3 logarithmically increasing doses to mice, Azathioiprine (Imuran), given as a positive control, caused a statistically significantt increase in the micronucleated cells.

Id Code
78045376
Authors
Carlin AS, Trupin EW
Title
The effect of long-term chronic marijuana use on neuropsychological functioning.
Source
International Journal of the Addictions
Date
1977 Aug
Issue
12(5)
Pages
617-24
Abstract
Ten normal subjects who smoked marijuana daily for an average of 5 years and who denied other drug use were examined on a neuropsychological test battery. When compared with normal nonsmoking Ss, minimal differences were observed. It was concluded that long-term cannabis use does not cause a generalized decrement in adaptive abilities which might be related to cerebral impairments.

Id Code
78040942
Authors
DiBenedetto M, McNamee HB, Kuehnle JC, Mendelson JH
Title
Cannabis and the peripheral nervous system.
Source
British Journal of Psychiatry
Date
1977 Oct
Issue
131
Pages
361-5
Abstract
The possible ill-effects of cannabis on the peripheral nervous system were examined in 27 male subjects with respect to their motor and sensory nerve conduction. They were classified by their previous cannabis use into casual and heavy users. The nerve conduction studies were done after a baseline period of five days and then repeated after a three-week period during which the subjects could acquire and smoke standardized cannabis cigarettes. The casual users smoked a mean of 54-3 and the heavy users a mean of 109-5 cigarettes during the smoking period. No deterioration of peripheral nerve function could be demonstrated.

Id Code
78038180
Authors
Cates W Jr, Pope JN
Title
Gynecomastia and cannabis smoking. A nonassociation among US Army soldiers.
Source
American Journal of Surgery
Date
1977 Nov
Issue
134(5)
Pages
613-5
Abstract
Eleven patients diagnosed with idiopathic gynecomastia requiring mammoplasty were compared with matched controls to determine if there was an association between cannabis use and gynecomastia. Patients with gynecomastia were not significantly different from controls regarding their history of cannabis use. For those who admitted using cannabis, patients had a higher frequency but a shorter median duration of use than controls; differences were not statistically significant. Our epidemiologic evidence does not support the previously reported relationship between chronic cannabis use and gynecomastia.

Id Code
77132906
Authors
Satz P, Fletcher JM, Sutker LS
Title
Neuropsychologic, intellectual, and personality correlates of chronic marijuana use in native Costa Ricans.
Source
Annals of the New York Academy of Sciences
Date
1976
Issue
282
Pages
266-306
Abstract
The present cross-cultural study investigated the effects of chronic marijuana usage on higher adaptive brain functions and personality in native Costa Ricans. After extensive standardization in Costa Rica, a battery of neuropsychologic, intelligence, and personality tests was administered to two carefully matched groups of marijuana users and controls (NU = NC = 41). Multivariate analyses of multiple combinations of variables, followed by separate univariate tests on each measure, revealed essentially no significant differences between users and nonusers on any of the neuropsychologic, intelligence, or personality tests. Furthermore, no relationship was found between level of daily use (high vs low) and test performance. These findings were discussed in terms of previous chronic and acute studies of changes in adaptive brain functions and personality as a function of marijuana intake.

Id Code
77132896
Authors
Cruickshank EK
Title
Physical assessment of 30 chronic cannabis users and 30 matched controls.
Source
Annals of the New York Academy of Sciences
Date
1976
Issue
282
Pages
162-7
Abstract
Ganja is used extensively in the working-class population of Jamaica, particularly in certain agricultural and fishing communities. Ganja, smoking is illegal but can be accepted as part of the culture in these areas. Sixty male subjects were chosen for assessment, 30 chronic smokers and 30 controls from comparable social, economic, and cultural backgrounds, and were matched for height and age. A chronic smoker had smoked a minimum of three spliffs per day for a minimum of 10 years. The subjects were admitted to the hospital for 1 week for psychologic and physical assessment. The physical assessment included a detailed medical history and examination, heart and lung radiography, electrocardiograms, respiratory, liver, and renal function tests, hematology, treponemal serology, and chromosomal studies. No significant physical abnormalities were found, except in two smokers, and there was no reason to suspect that these disabilities were related to ganja. No significant differences between the two groups were demonstrated in the wide range of tests administered.

Id Code
76193835
Authors
Banerjee BN, Sofia RD, Erikson D, Ivins NJ
Title
Toxicity of delta9 -tetrahydrocannabinol (THC) administered subcutaneously for 13 days to female rabbits.
Source
Journal of Toxicology & Environmental Health
Date
1976 May
Issue
1(5)
Pages
769-76
Abstract
Delta9- Tetrahydrocannabinol (THC) was administered subcutaneously to female New Zealand white strain rabbits for 13 days. The animals were randomly divided into six groups of five animals each of which consisted of untreated controls, vehicle (undiluted propylene glycol)-treated, and THC treatment at dose levels of 100, 30, 10, and 3 mg/kg/day. All animals survived for the duration of the study. The THC-treated rabbits did not gain significant body weight which seems to be due to a decreased food consumption. There were some variations in various hematologic values, but they all were within the normal range for our laboratory. Blood chemistry evaluations showed decreased serum levels of potassium, glucose, blood urea nitrogen, alkaline phosphatase, and albumin/globulin (A/G) ratio and an increase in cholesterol levels of all treated animals. A significant increase in billirubin values was noted in the animsls of the 3- and 10-mg/kg groups. The injection site in the skin of the THC-treated rabbits showed signs of local irritation (erythema and subcutaneous abscesses). There was a reduction in absolute and percent of body weight of the liver and absolute weight of the lungs of the treated animals. However, no histopathologic alterations were observed. It may be concluded that THC treatment subcutaneously for 13 days in rabbits up to a dose level of 100 mg/kg/day did not produce any significant toxicity, except anorexia and some local dermal irritation.

Id Code
91054292
Authors
Friedrich G, Nepita W, Andre T
Title
[Serum testosterone concentrations in cannabis and opiate users].
Language
German
Source
Beitrage zur Gerichtlichen Medizin
Date
1990
Issue
48
Pages
57-66
Abstract
The object of this study was to establish possible influences of long-term cannabis usage on plasma testosterone levels. The plasma testosterone levels of 66 male Pakistani who for years had smoked cannabis daily or drank cannabis regularly where measured after chronic and acute intake of the drug and compared with a material of 41 normal controls, i.e. persons who did not use cannabis. An evaluation of the results showed that there were no significant differences between the two groups. No influence of long-term cannabis usage on plasma testosterone levels was found. Furthermore we wished to find out wether long-term heroin abuse showed an effect on plasma testosterone levels. The concentrations of testosterone in the plasma of 102 heroin addicts assigned to a Methadone Program were measured and compared with the values of 29 male healthy students as controls. Plasma testosterone levels were found to be significantly decreased in heroin addicts as compared to controls.

Id Code
90174522
Authors
Fried PA
Title
Cigarettes and marijuana: are there measurable long-term neurobehavioral teratogenic effects?.
Source
Neurotoxicology
Date
1989 Fall
Issue
10(3)
Pages
577-83
Abstract
Since 1978, a prospective investigation has been underway to study the consequences of prenatal exposure to a number of widely used drugs. Data are presented describing some of the associations between maternal use of cigarettes and marijuana and effects upon the offspring beyond the newborn stage. At one month of age, prenatal cigarette exposure was associated with hypertonicity and increased nervous system excitation while prenatal marijuana exposure was associated with symptoms similar to mild narcotic withdrawal. At 12 months of age, maternal cigarette smoking was significantly associated with lower mental scores and altered responses to auditory items. At 24 months, similar associations were noted although the unique predictive power of maternal smoking was overshadowed by the influence of the postnatal environment. In the one and two year old offspring of the marijuana users, no association was noted between drug use and motor, mental or language outcome variables. At three years of age a dose response relationship between lower language scores, lowered cognitive scores and prenatal cigarette exposure was noted. At this age, some cognitive and language deficits were also observed with prenatal marijuana exposure. Overall, it appears that at one, two and three years of age, there are persistent effects of prenatal exposure to cigarettes but the effects of prenatal marijuana exposure, if present, are not as readily ascertained.

Id Code
89147849
Authors
Hollister LE
Title
Cannabis--1988. [Review]
Source
Acta Psychiatrica Scandinavica, Supplementum
Date
1988
Issue
345
Pages
108-18
Abstract
In this updating review of research on cannabis particular attention has been paid to the increasing number of studies of the disposition of the components of cannabis in man, as well as possible effects on health. Specific binding sites for cannaboids have not been demonstrated. Approximately 80 metabolites of tetrahydrocannabiol (THC) have been discovered, of which 11-OH-THC is the main metabolite, but it contributes little to the overall effect when the drug is smoked or given intravenously. The minimum plasma level of THC associated with the psychotropic effect is 25 ng/ml. Despite widespread use of cannabis in virtually all parts of the world, no catastrophic effects on health have been noted. Cannabis appears to be relatively safe as compared with current social drugs. It is, however, still too early in the history of the present episode of cannabis use to be sanguine about possible bad effects.
References
73

Id Code
88304476
Authors
Alexander CS, Klassen AC
Title
Drug use and illnesses among eighth grade students in rural schools.
Source
Public Health Reports
Date
1988 Jul-Aug
Issue
103(4)
Pages
394-9
Abstract
We examined the relationship between drug use by young adolescents and two indicators of illness, frequency of illness and numbers of days absent from school owing to illness. Data were from a general health survey of all eighth grade students enrolled in public schools in two rural Maryland counties. A total of 745 students completed a self-administered questionnaire during school hours in January 1984. Information was obtained on a variety of sociodemographic characteristics and on the students' use of tobacco, alcohol, and marijuana. Correlational analyses were used to examine the relationships among cigarette smoking, beer or wine drinking, whiskey or hard liquor drinking, and marijuana use. Logistic regression was used to model the effects of drug use behaviors on the likelihood of being absent from school 3 or more days, adjusting for the student's age, sex, race, parents' education, illness frequency, and concerns about learning problems in school. We found substantial covariation among the use of cigarettes, alcohol, and marijuana. After adjusting for the background variables of illness, frequency, and learning problems, we found that students who are frequent cigarette smokers experienced a 2.6 risk of school absenteeism. Other drug use behaviors were not associated significantly with increased risk of missing school. Findings are discussed within the context of health-related consequences of drug use.

Id Code
88274686
Authors
Hollister LE
Title
Marijuana and immunity. [Review]
Source
Journal of Psychoactive Drugs
Date
1988 Jan-Mar
Issue
20(1)
Pages
3-8
Abstract
Despite the fairly large literature that developed during the past 15 years or so, the effect of cannabinoids on the immune system is still unsettled. The evidence has been contradictory and is more supportive of some degree of immunosuppression only when one considers in vitro studies. These have been seriously flawed by the very high concentrations of drug used to produce immunosuppression and by the lack of comparisons with other membrane-active drugs. The closer that experimental studies have been to actual clinical situations, the less compelling has been the evidence. Although the topic was of great interest during the 1970's, as indicated by the preponderance of the references from that period, interest has waned during the present decade. This waning of interest suggests that perhaps most investigators feel that this line of inquiry will not be rewarding. The AIDS epidemic has also diverted the attention of immunologists to the far more serious problem of the truly devastating effects a retrovirus can have on a portion of the immune system. The relationship between the use of social drugs and the development of clinical manifestations of AIDS has been of some interest, however. Persons infected with the virus but not diagnosed as AIDS have been told to avoid the use of marijuana and/or alcohol. This advice may be reasonable as a general health measure, but direct evidence that heeding this warning will prevent the ultimate damage to the immune system is totally lacking.
References
42

Id Code
87206956
Authors
O'Connell ME, Morrill GA, Fujimoto GI, Kostellow AB
Title
Factors affecting the response of the female rat reproductive system to cannabinoids.
Source
Toxicology & Applied Pharmacology
Date
1987 May
Issue
88(3)
Pages
411-7
Abstract
Chronic oral administration of either crude marihuana extract (CME) or delta 9-tetrahydrocannabinol (THC) to female Fischer rats for 64-72 days, at a dose approximating heavy usage by humans, reduces food intake by about 8%. Pair-feeding studies demonstrate that this decreased food intake accounts for previously described decreases in uterine and ovarian weights, which are much more affected by food restriction than is body weight. THC-treated rats lost weight initially which was not regained. Pair-fed rats gained only about one-half of the weight of the untreated control or vehicle-treated control rats over a 64-day period. Although long-term cannabinoid administration leads to tolerance and the resumption of the estrous cycle, the onset of estrus is often delayed when cannabinoid is administered 5-6 hr before the proestrus luteinizing hormone (LH) surge. Our results indicate that although chronic exposure to cannabinoids can continue to affect the rat estrous cycle, they do not have a direct effect on growth of the reproductive organs. The results reemphasize the need for adequate nutritional controls in marihuana and other toxicological research.

Id Code
88013708
Authors
Fried PA, O'Connell CM
Title
A comparison of the effects of prenatal exposure to tobacco, alcohol, cannabis and caffeine on birth size and subsequent growth.
Source
Neurotoxicology & Teratology
Date
1987 Mar-Apr
Issue
9(2)
Pages
79-85
Abstract
Maternal use of cigarettes, alcohol, cannabis, and caffeine was established for four time periods; prepregnancy, first trimester, third trimester and average use over pregnancy. The relationship between such usage and growth parameters of offspring followed up from birth to 12 and 24 months of age were examined. Of the soft drugs used, nicotine had the most pronounced effect. After adjustment for other relevant variables, nicotine use prior to and during pregnancy was negatively related to weight and head circumference at birth. Furthermore, third trimester nicotine use was a stronger predictor of decreased weight and head circumference at birth than was first trimester use. The results obtained are consistent with ponderal index (PI) literature suggesting a recovery of growth retardation in infants with a lowered PI. Average consumption of greater than one ounce of absolute alcohol per day was negatively related to birth weight and length. Neither cannabis nor caffeine use had a significant negative effect on any growth parameter.

Id Code
86303134
Authors
Wert RC, Raulin ML
Title
The chronic cerebral effects of cannabis use. I. Methodological issues and neurological findings. [Review]
Source
International Journal of the Addictions
Date
1986 Jun
Issue
21(6)
Pages
605-28
Abstract
This paper examines the research evidence relating sustained use of marijuana to chronic cerebral impairment. Evidence from both American and cross-cultural studies is reviewed, with a particular emphasis on methodological problems in the research. The focus of this paper is on neurological findings while another paper focuses on neuropsychological findings. On the basis of available research, it was concluded that there is no evidence that marijuana produces gross structural cerebral changes and little evidence that it leads to functional impairment, although subtle impairment cannot be ruled out.
References
93

Id Code
86219412
Authors
Zimmerman AM, Murer-Orlando ML, Richer CL
Title
Effect of cannabinoids on spermatogenesis in vivo: a cytological study.
Source
Cytobios
Date
1986
Issue
45(180)
Pages
7-15
Abstract
The cytogenetic effects of delta 9-tetrahydrocannabinol (THC) and cannabinol (CBN) (10 mg/kg) were investigated in hybrid mice of genotype (C57BL x C3H)F1. Mice were treated for 5 consecutive days with the specific cannabinoid; 16 days after the last treatment the meiotic cells were evaluated. Analysis of the spermatocyte bivalents at the first meiotic metaphase failed to reveal any numerical or structural abnormality. Contrary to previous reports we failed to find any major meiotic abnormalities associated with THC and CBN treatments. There was no evidence of ring or chain figures.

Id Code
86314128
Authors
Dewey WL
Title
Cannabinoid pharmacology. [Review]
Source
Pharmacological Reviews
Date
1986 Jun
Issue
38(2)
Pages
151-78
Abstract
The pharmacology of the cannabinoids is characterized by at least two very provocative phenomena. First, the multiplicity of effects. As I have mentioned throughout this review, most of these effects are due to actions on the central nervous system. The major problem in the search for a therapeutic agent in this series has been due to the inability to find a cannabinoid with the therapeutic action at doses below those that produce side effects. The high lipid solubility of the cannabinoids allows them to be distributed throughout the brain at reasonable doses. The second aspect of their pharmacology worthy of special mention is their low toxicity. Throughout this review, I have indicated that the minimal effective dose of delta 9-THC for a particular pharmacological effect in animals was higher than that usually consumed by man. Yet, in almost all cases, it was much lower than the dose which produced toxic effects in the same species. These two characteristics of the animal pharmacology of cannabinoids carry over to humans. For instance, each of the cannabinoids tested in man causes many side effects at active doses and lethal effects of overdose by humans are nonexistent or rare. Toxicity following chronic use may be a different issue. A great deal of work has been carried out in an attempt to characterize the pharmacological effects of cannabinoids. It is clear from the material reviewed in this article that most if not all of the predominant effects of cannabinoids in whole animals are due to the direct effects of these compounds on the central nervous system. Our state of knowledge is too limited to rule out the possibility that they also produce effects on certain peripheral organs. It is expected that the majority of these effects will be shown to be due to the interaction of the cannabinoids with the neuronal innervation of the organ rather than directly with the organ tissue itself. Very high doses of cannabinoids just like all active drugs have an effect on many organ systems. These are toxicologic not pharmacologic and are nonspecific. The effects of cannabinoids at the molecular level have been reviewed by Martin (182a) in this series. This type of research is expected to elucidate the mechanism of action of cannabinoids at the cellular level. It is clear that the cannabinoids produce a unique behavioral syndrome in laboratory animals and in man.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 400 WORDS)
References
300

Id Code
86233680
Authors
Hollister LE
Title
Health aspects of cannabis. [Review]
Source
Pharmacological Reviews
Date
1986 Mar
Issue
38(1)
Pages
1-20
Abstract
Marijuana seems firmly established as another social drug in Western countries, regardless of its current legal status. Patterns of use vary widely. As with other social drugs, the pattern of use is critical in determining adverse effects on health. Perhaps the major area of concern about marijuana use is among the very young. Using any drug on a regular basis that alters reality may be detrimental to the psychosocial maturation of young persons. Chronic use of marijuana may stunt the emotional growth of youngsters. Evidence for an amotivational syndrome is largely based on clinical reports; whether marijuana use is a cause or effect is uncertain. A marijuana psychosis, long rumored, has been difficult to prove. No one doubts that marijuana use may aggravate existing psychoses or other severe emotional disorders. Brain damage has not been proved. Physical dependence is rarely encountered in the usual patterns of social use, despite some degree of tolerance that may develop. The endocrine effects of the drug might be expected to delay puberty in prepubertal boys, but actual instances have been rare. As with any material that is smoked, chronic smoking of marijuana will produce bronchitis; emphysema or lung cancer have not yet been documented. Cardiovascular effects of the drug are harmful to those with preexisting heart disease; fortunately the number of users with such conditions is minimal. Fears that the drug might accumulate in the body to the point of toxicity have been groundless. The potential deleterious effects of marijuana use on driving ability seem to be self-evident; proof of such impairment has been more difficult. The drug is probably harmful when taken during pregnancy, but the risk is uncertain. One would be prudent to avoid marijuana during pregnancy, just as one would do with most other drugs not essential to life or well-being. No clinical consequences have been noted from the effects of the drug on immune response, chromosomes, or cell metabolites. Contamination of marijuana by spraying with defoliants has created the clearest danger to health; such attempts to control production should be abandoned. Therapeutic uses for marijuana, THC, or cannabinoid homologs are being actively explored. Only the synthetic homolog, nabilone, has been approved for use to control nausea and vomiting associated with cancer chemotherapy.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 400 WORDS)
References
185

Id Code
95150190
Authors
Shiono PH, Klebanoff MA, Nugent RP, Cotch MF, Wilkins DG, Rollins DE, Carey JC, Behrman RE
Title
The impact of cocaine and marijuana use on low birth weight and preterm birth: a multicenter study.
Source
American Journal of Obstetrics & Gynecology
Date
1995 Jan
Issue
172(1 Pt 1)
Pages
19-27
Abstract
OBJECTIVE: Our aim was to evaluate prospectively the effects of cocaine and marijuana use on pregnancy outcomes. STUDY DESIGN: A prospective multicenter cohort study was conducted at seven university-based prenatal clinics in the United States from 1984 to 1989. The cohort described herein consisted of a multiethnic population of 7470 pregnant women. Information on the use of drugs was obtained from personal interviews at entry to the study and assays of serum obtained during pregnancy. Pregnancy outcome data (low birth weight [< 2500 gm], preterm birth [< 37 weeks' gestation], and abruptio placentae) were obtained with a standardized study protocol. RESULTS: A total of 2.3% of the women used cocaine and 11.0% used marijuana during pregnancy. Cocaine use was not associated with having a low-birth-weight infant (adjusted odds ratio 0.7, 95% confidence interval 0.4 to 1.3) or a preterm birth (1.3, 0.9 to 2.0). There was no association between short-term exposure to cocaine and preterm delivery (1.1, 0.3 to 4.0). However, cocaine use was strongly associated with abruptio placentae (adjusted odds ratio 4.2, 1.9 to 9.5). Marijuana use was not associated with low birth weight (1.1, 0.9 to 1.5), preterm delivery (1.1, 0.8 to 1.3) or abruptio placentae (1.3, 0.6 to 2.8). By comparison, 35% of the women smoked cigarettes during pregnancy, and cigarette smoking was positively associated with low birth weight (1.5, 1.2 to 1.8). CONCLUSIONS: In this population of women receiving prenatal care, cocaine use was uncommon and was not related to most adverse birth outcomes. Marijuana use was relatively common and was not related to adverse pregnancy outcomes. Tobacco is still the most commonly abused drug during pregnancy, 15% of all cases of low birth weight in this study could have been prevented if women did not smoke cigarettes during pregnancy.

Id Code
95068738
Authors
Day NL, Richardson GA, Geva D, Robles N
Title
Alcohol, marijuana, and tobacco: effects of prenatal exposure on offspring growth and morphology at age six.
Source
Alcoholism, Clinical & Experimental Research
Date
1994 Aug
Issue
18(4)
Pages
786-94
Abstract
Little is known about the long-term effects of prenatal exposure to alcohol. There are even fewer reports on the longitudinal effects of exposure to either marijuana or tobacco during pregnancy. This study is on the 6-year follow-up of 668 children enrolled in the Maternal Health Practices and Child Development Project. Mothers were interviewed at the 4th and 7th months of pregnancy, and mothers and children were evaluated at delivery, 8, and 18 months, and 3 and 6 years postpartum. At 6 years of age, children who were exposed to alcohol prenatally were significantly smaller in weight, height, head circumference, and palpebral fissure width. These effects on size were mediated by the effect of prenatal alcohol exposure on the offspring at 8 months. Prenatal alcohol exposure was also significantly associated with maternal reports of the child's appetite at 6 years. There were no effects of prenatal marijuana or tobacco exposure on growth when the children were age 6. There were also no significant relationships between prenatal exposure to alcohol, marijuana, or tobacco and the rate of morphologic anomalies, including the features of the fetal alcohol syndrome.

Id Code
94167175
Authors
Dreher MC, Nugent K, Hudgins R
Title
Prenatal marijuana exposure and neonatal outcomes in Jamaica: an ethnographic study.
Source
Pediatrics
Date
1994 Feb
Issue
93(2)
Pages
254-60
Abstract
OBJECTIVE. To identify neurobehavioral effects of prenatal marijuana exposure on neonates in rural Jamaica. DESIGN. Ethnographic field studies and standardized neuro-behavior assessments during the neonatal period. SETTING. Rural Jamaica in heavy-marijuana-using population. PARTICIPANTS. Twenty-four Jamaican neonates exposed to marijuana prenatally and 20 nonexposed neonates. MEASUREMENTS AND MAIN RESULTS. Exposed and nonexposed neonates were compared at 3 days and 1 month old, using the Brazelton Neonatal Assessment Scale, including supplementary items to capture possible subtle effects. There were no significant differences between exposed and nonexposed neonates on day 3. At 1 month, the exposed neonates showed better physiological stability and required less examiner facilitation to reach organized states. The neonates of heavy-marijuana-using mothers had better scores on autonomic stability, quality of alertness, irritability, and self-regulation and were judged to be more rewarding for caregivers. CONCLUSIONS. The absence of any differences between the exposed on nonexposed groups in the early neonatal period suggest that the better scores of exposed neonates at 1 month are traceable to the cultural positioning and social and economic characteristics of mothers using marijuana that select for the use of marijuana but also promote neonatal development.

Id Code
92085964
Authors
Berryman SH, Anderson RA Jr, Weis J, Bartke A
Title
Evaluation of the co-mutagenicity of ethanol and delta 9-tetrahydrocannabinol with Trenimon.
Source
Mutation Research
Date
1992 Jan
Issue
278(1)
Pages
47-60
Abstract
The mutagenic potential of chronic treatments of male CF-1 mice with ethanol and delta 9-tetrahydrocannibinol (THC), and their comutagenic potential with a known mutagenic agent, Trenimon, were examined. This was accomplished by measuring the frequency of dominant lethal mutations arising from mating of treated males with nontreated females. Adult male mice were treated with 5% (v/v) ethanol as part of a liquid diet (28% ethanol-derived calories) for five weeks; 10 mg/kg body weight (p.o.) THC every two days for five weeks; a single injection of Trenimon (0.125 mg/kg, i.p.) on day 28 of diet treatment; and all combinations of treatments. The control group was pair-fed a liquid diet in which isocaloric sucrose replaced ethanol; these males were also given sesame oil (vehicle for THC) and saline (vehicle for Trenimon) on the same schedule as that for the treated males. Neither body weights nor hematocrits were adversely affected by any treatment. Both ethanol and Trenimon treatments resulted in a small (8-9%; p less than 0.05) decrease in testicular weight. The effect of combined treatment with ethanol and Trenimon was roughly additive. Treatment with THC had no effect on testicular weight. Seminal vesicle weights were not affected by any treatment. Treatments were without significant effect on fertility, as measured by the frequency of males producing pregnancies. Ethanol and Trenimon treatments produced approximately 3- and 7-fold increases, respectively in the frequencies of preimplantational loss over that seen for the control group (7.3%), resulting in significant ethanol and Trenimon effects (p less than 0.001). No interactive effects of ethanol and Trenimon treatments were noted. Frequencies of dead fetuses per pregnancy in the ethanol- and Trenimon-treated groups were increased approximately 2.5- and 4-fold, respectively, over the control value of approximately 16%. However, the effect of combined treatments was not greater than that due to Trenimon alone, resulting in Trenimon and ethanol effects (p less than 0.001) and ethanol-Trenimon interaction (p less than 0.001). The calculated mutation index resulting from each treatment yielded significant (p less than 0.001) ethanol- and Trenimon-induced effects. In contrast to effects of ethanol and Trenimon treatments, THC, given alone, or in combination with ethanol and/or Trenimon, had no effect on either preimplantational loss, fetal mortality or the resulting mutation index. The data suggest that chronic ethanol treatment, at levels resulting in minimal fertility impairment, increases the frequency of dominant lethal mutations. In contrast, chronic treatment with THC, as administered in the present study, appears to be without effect.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 400 WORDS)

Id Code
93140688
Authors
Day N, Cornelius M, Goldschmidt L, Richardson G, Robles N, Taylor P
Title
The effects of prenatal tobacco and marijuana use on offspring growth from birth through 3 years of age.
Source
Neurotoxicology & Teratology
Date
1992 Nov-Dec
Issue
14(6)
Pages
407-14
Abstract
This is a prospective study of prenatal substance use. Women were interviewed during their fourth and seventh months of pregnancy, at delivery, and at 8, 18, and 36 months postpartum. At birth, there were 763 liveborn, singleton offspring in the sample. At each phase, the offspring were examined and measured for growth. Data are presented on the relationship between tobacco and marijuana use and the size of the offspring at birth, 8, 18, and 36 months of age. At birth, there was a significant inverse relationship between tobacco use and weight, length, and head circumference. At 8 months of age, only length continued to be associated with prenatal tobacco exposure. By 18 months of age, there was no relationship between prenatal tobacco exposure and size of the offspring. Prenatal marijuana exposure was only associated with decreased length at birth. Neither tobacco nor marijuana use predicted gestational age or morphological abnormalities.

Id Code
93042348
Authors
Mathew RJ, Wilson WH, Humphreys DF, Lowe JV, Wiethe KE
Title
Changes in middle cerebral artery velocity after marijuana.
Source
Biological Psychiatry
Date
1992 Jul 15
Issue
32(2)
Pages
164-9
Abstract
Velocity of blood flow in the middle cerebral artery was measured with transcranial Doppler flowmeter before, during, and 1 hr after smoking a marijuana cigarette and a placebo cigarette during two separate visits to the laboratory. Ten healthy, right-handed male volunteers with a history of marijuana smoking took part in the study. The participants were drug-free for a minimum of 3 mo before the project. During the experiment, blood pressure, pulse rate, and end tidal levels of carbon dioxide were continually monitored. Marijuana smoking was associated with a significant increase in middle cerebral artery velocity. Although marijuana smoking was associated with increased pulse rate, the changes in blood velocity and pulse rate followed different time courses. Marijuana smoking was not associated with significant changes in blood pressure or end tidal carbon dioxide.

Id Code
92093498
Authors
Astley SJ, Clarren SK, Little RE, Sampson PD, Daling JR
Title
Analysis of facial shape in children gestationally exposed to marijuana, alcohol, and/or cocaine.
Source
Pediatrics
Date
1992 Jan
Issue
89(1)
Pages
67-77
Abstract
The association between fetal marijuana and/or alcohol exposure and facial features resembling fetal alcohol syndrome was investigated in a sample of 80 children. Standardized lateral and frontal facial photographs were taken of 40 children, 5 to 7 years of age, whose mothers reported frequent use of marijuana during the first trimester of pregnancy and 40 children whose mothers reported no use of marijuana during pregnancy. The marijuana-exposed and unexposed children were group-matched on alcohol exposure prior to and during pregnancy, sex, race, and age at the time of assessment. The photographs were assessed clinically by a study staff dysmorphologist and morphometrically by computerized landmark analysis. Fetal alcohol syndrome-like facial features were not associated with prenatal marijuana exposure in this study sample. No consistent patterns of facial features were identified among the marijuana-exposed group. Maternal consumption of two or more ounces of alcohol per day, on average, in early gestation was found to be associated with fetal alcohol syndrome-like facial features identified both clinically and morphometrically. Cocaine use reported by 13 of the 80 women was independently associated with mild facial dysmorphic features of hypertelorism and midfacial flattening. The results demonstrate the usefulness of this diagnostic technique for quantifying anomalies apparently unique to fetal alcohol syndrome and for targeting clusters of anomalies in new conditions for future evaluation.

Authors
- Braun BL, Tekawa IS, Gerberich SG, Sidney S
Title
- Marijuana use and medically attended injury events [In Process Citation]
Language
- Eng
Date
- 1998 Sep
Issue
- 0196-0644
Source
- Ann Emerg Med
Pages
- 353-60
Country
- UNITED STATES
Abstract
- STUDY OBJECTIVE: This study evaluated the relation between self- reported marijuana use and 3-year incidence of injury. METHODS: We conducted a retrospective cohort study of adult Kaiser Permanente Medical Care Program members who underwent multiphasic health examinations between 1979 and 1986 (n=4,462). Injury-related outpatient visits, hospitalizations, and fatalities within 3 years of examination were determined. RESULTS: Outpatient injury events totaled 2,524; 1,611 participants (36%) had at least 1 injury-related outpatient visit. Injury-related hospitalizations (n=22) and fatalities (n=3) were rare. Among men, there was no consistent relation between marijuana use and injury incidence for either former users (rate ratio, 1.15; 95% confidence interval [CI], .97 to 1.36) or current users (rate ratio, 0.97; 95% CI, .81 to 1.17), compared with those who had never used marijuana. Among women, former and current users showed little difference in their rate of later injury compared with never users; the rate ratios were 1.05 (95% CI, .87 to 1.26) and 1.20 (95% CI, 1.00 to 1.44), respectively. No statistically significant associations were noted between marijuana use and cause-specific injury incidence in men or women. CONCLUSION: Among members of a health maintenance organization, self-reported marijuana use in adult men or women was not associated with outpatient injury within 3 years of marijuana use ascertainment.
Research Institute
- St. Mary's/Duluth Clinic Health System, Division of Education and Research, MN, USA.
Source
- Ann Emerg Med 1998 Sep;32(3 Pt 1):353-60

Authors
- Fant RV, Heishman SJ, Bunker EB, Pickworth WB
Title
- Acute and residual effects of marijuana in humans [In Process Citation]
Language
- Eng
Date
- 1998 Aug
Issue
- 0091-3057
Source
- Pharmacol Biochem Behav
Pages
- 777-84
Country
- UNITED STATES
Abstract
- Marijuana continues to be the most commonly abused illicit drug in the United States. Because many people abuse marijuana during the evening and on weekends and then go to work or school the next day, more research is needed on the residual effects of marijuana. The current study sought to examine both acute and residual subjective. physiologic, and performance effects of smoking a single marijuana cigarette. Ten healthy male volunteers who reported recent use of marijuana resided on a residential research ward. On three separate days, subjects smoked one NIDA marijuana cigarette containing either 0%, 1.8%, or 3.6% delta9-tetrahydrocannabinol (THC) according to a paced puffing procedure. Subjective, physiologic, and performance measures were collected prior to smoking, five times following smoking on that day, and three times on the following morning. Subjects reported robust subjective effects following both active doses of marijuana, which returned to baseline levels within 3.5 h. Heart rate increased and the pupillary light reflex decreased following active dose administration with return to baseline on that day. A new finding was that marijuana smoking acutely produced decrements in smooth pursuit eye tracking. Although robust acute effects of marijuana were found on subjective and physiological measures, and on smooth pursuit eye tracking performance, no effects were evident the day following administration, indicating that the residual effects of smoking a single marijuana cigarette are minimal.
Research Institute
- National Institute on Drug Abuse, Intramural Research Program, Addiction Research Center, Baltimore, MD 21224, USA.
Source
- Pharmacol Biochem Behav 1998 Aug;60(4):777-84

Authors
- English DR, Hulse GK, Milne E, Holman CD, Bower CI
Title
- Maternal cannabis use and birth weight: a meta-analysis.
Language
- Eng
Date
- 1997 Nov
Issue
- 0965-2140
Source
- Addiction
Pages
- 1553-60
Country
- ENGLAND
Abstract
- AIMS: To estimate the effect of maternal cannabis use on birth weight. DESIGN: Meta-analysis of published observational studies adjusted for cigarette smoking. Separate analyses were performed for studies of low birth weight and mean birth weight. We used fixed and random effects models, but in all cases the results were identical. SETTING: From the Medline database, we identified 10 studies in which the results were adjusted for cigarette smoking. In seven studies, information on cannabis use was collected prenatally. Five studies reported results for differences in mean birth weight associated with maternal cannabis use. PARTICIPANTS: 32,483 women giving birth to live-born infants. MEASUREMENTS: Mean birth weight and odds ratio for low birth weight. FINDINGS: Three analyses of the studies on mean birth weight were conducted to avoid double-counting women from one study. The largest reduction in mean birth weight for any cannabis use during pregnancy was 48 g (95% confidence interval (CI) 83-14 g), with considerable heterogeneity among the five studies. Mean birth weight was increased by 62 g (95% CI 8 g reduction-132 g increase; p heterogeneity 0.59) among infrequent users (< or = weekly) whereas cannabis use at least four times per week had a 131 g reduction in mean birth weight (95% CI 52-209 g reduction; p heterogeneity 0.25). From the five studies of low birth weight, the pooled odds ratio for any use was 1.09 (95% CI 0.94- 1.27, p heterogeneity 0.19). CONCLUSIONS: There is inadequate evidence that cannabis, at the amount typically consumed by pregnant women, causes low birth weight.
Research Institute
- Department of Public Health, University of Western Australia, Nedlands, Australia.
Source
- Addiction 1997 Nov;92(11):1553-60

Authors
- Sidney S, Quesenberry CP Jr, Friedman GD, Tekawa IS
Title
- Marijuana use and cancer incidence (California, United States).
Language
- Eng
Date
- 1997 Sep
Issue
- 0957-5243
Source
- Cancer Causes Control
Pages
- 722-8
Country
- ENGLAND
Abstract
- The purpose of this retrospective cohort study was to examine the relationship of marijuana use to cancer incidence. The study population consisted of 64,855 examinees in the Kaiser Permanente multiphasic health checkup in San Francisco and Oakland (California, United States), between 1979-85, aged 15 to 49 years, who completed self- administered questionnaires about smoking habits, including marijuana use. Follow-up for cancer incidence was conducted through 1993 (mean length 8.6 years). Compared with nonusers/experimenters (lifetime use of less than seven times), ever- and current use of marijuana were not associated with increased risk of cancer of all sites (relative risk [RR] = 0.9, 95 percent confidence interval [CI] = 0.7-12 for ever-use in men; RR = 1.0, CI = 0.8-1.1 in women) in analyses adjusted for sociodemographic factors, cigarette smoking, and alcohol use. Marijuana use also was not associated with tobacco-related cancers or with cancer of the following sites: colorectal, lung, melanoma, prostate, breast, cervix. Among nonsmokers of tobacco cigarettes, ever having used marijuana was associated with increased risk of prostate cancer (RR = 3.1, CI = 1.0-9.5) and nearly significantly increased risk of cervical cancer (RR = 1.4, CI = 1.0-2.1). We conclude that, in this relatively young study cohort, marijuana use and cancer were not associated in overall analyses, but that associations in nonsmokers of tobacco cigarettes suggested that marijuana use might affect certain site- specific cancer risks.
Research Institute
- Division of Research, Kaiser Permanente Medical Care Program, Oakland, California 94611-5714, USA.
Source
- Cancer Causes Control 1997 Sep;8(5):722-8

Authors
- Fried PA, Watkinson B, Siegel LS
Title
- Reading and language in 9- to 12-year olds prenatally exposed to cigarettes and marijuana.
Language
- Eng
Date
- 1997 May-Jun
Issue
- 0892-0362
Source
- Neurotoxicol Teratol
Pages
- 171-83
Country
- UNITED STATES
Abstract
- Facets of reading and language were examined in 131 9- to 12-year-old children for whom prenatal exposure to marijuana and cigarettes had been ascertained. The subjects were from a low-risk, predominantly middle class sample who are participants in an ongoing longitudinal study. Discriminant Function Analysis revealed a dose-dependent association that remained after controlling for potential confounds, between prenatal cigarette exposure and lower language and lower reading scores, particularly on auditory-related aspects of this latter measure. The findings are interpreted as consistent with earlier observations of an association between cigarette smoking during pregnancy and altered auditory functioning in the offspring. Similarities and differences between the reading observations and dyslexia are discussed. Maternal prenatal passive smoke exposure did not appear to contribute to either the language or reading outcomes at this age but postnatal secondhand smoke exposure by the child was associated with poorer language scores. Prenatal marijuana exposure was not significantly related to either the reading or language outcomes.
Research Institute
- Department of Psychology, Carleton University, Ottawa, Ontario, Canada. pfried@ccs.carleton.ca
Source
- Neurotoxicol Teratol 1997 May-Jun;19(3):171-83

Authors
- Mathew RJ, Wilson WH, Coleman RE, Turkington TG, DeGrado TR
Title
- Marijuana intoxication and brain activation in marijuana smokers.
Language
- Eng
Date
- 1997
Issue
- 0024-3205
Source
- Life Sci
Pages
- 2075-89
Country
- ENGLAND
Abstract
- OBJECTIVE AND METHOD: The acute effects of delta9 tetrahydrocannabinol (THC) on cerebral blood flow (CBF) were studied in human subjects. Regional CBF was measured with 15O-water and Positron Emission Tomography (PET) in 32 volunteers with a history of exposure to marijuana. Scans were performed before and after intravenous (I.V.) infusion of either of two doses of THC or a placebo, given under double blind conditions. RESULTS: THC but not placebo increased CBF especially in the frontal regions bilaterally, insula and cingulate gyrus and sub- cortical regions with somewhat greater effects in the right hemisphere. While most regions showed significant change at 60 minutes for the lower dose group, the higher dose group had significant change at 30 and 60 minutes. There was a highly significant change in the anterior/posterior ratio for the two THC groups reflecting minimal change in occipital flow but significant increases in frontal flow. Self ratings of THC intoxication showed significant effects, and regression analysis indicated it correlated most markedly with the right frontal region. CONCLUSION: Behavioral manifestations of marijuana intoxication may be associated with increased functional activity of the brain especially the frontal cortex, insula and cingulate gyrus.
Research Institute
- Department of Psychiatry and Radiology, Duke University Medical Center, Durham, NC 27710, USA.
Source
- Life Sci 1997;60(23):2075-89