Research Index | Medline Index


Cannabis Research - passive smoking


Id Code
85033141
Authors
Law B, Mason PA, Moffat AC, King LJ, Marks V
Title
Passive inhalation of cannabis smoke.
Source
Journal of Pharmacy & Pharmacology
Date
1984 Sep
Issue
36(9)
Pages
578-81
Abstract
Six volunteers each smoked simultaneously, in a small unventilated room (volume 27 950 litre), a cannabis cigarette containing 17.1 mg delta 9-tetrahydrocannabinol (THC). A further four subjects - passive inhalers - remained in the room during smoking and afterwards for a total of 3 h. Blood and urine samples were taken from all ten subjects and analysed by radioimmunoassay for THC metabolites. The blood samples from the passive subjects taken up to 3 h after the start of exposure to cannabis smoke showed a complete absence of cannabinoids. In contrast, their urine samples taken up to 6 h after exposure showed significant concentrations of cannabinoid metabolites (less than or equal to 6.8 ng ml-1). These data, taken with the results of other workers, show passive inhalation of cannabis smoke to be possible. These results have important implications for forensic toxicologists who are frequently called upon to interpret cannabinoid levels in body fluids.

Authors
Mason AP, Perez-Reyes M, McBay AJ, Foltz RL
Title
Cannabinoid concentrations in plasma after passive inhalation of marijuana smoke.
Source
Journal of Analytical Toxicology
Date
1983 Jul-Aug
Issue
7(4)
Pages
172-4
Abstract
delta-9-tetrahydrocannabinol (THC) and its metabolite, 9-carboxy-THC, were detected in the plasma of a subject during a one-hour passive exposure to the smoke from four marijuana cigarettes containing a total of 104.8 mg of THC. Plasma concentrations of THC were determined by RIA and reached an apparent steady-state concentration of 2.2 ng/mL after 20 minutes of exposure. The presence of THC was confirmed by GC/MS analysis. Results from the two analyses exhibited excellent correlation (r = 0.990), although the concentrations determined by GC/MS were higher than those determined by RIA. Concentrations of 9-carboxy-THC were also determined by GC/MS, and remained consistently below the GC/MS determined concentrations of THC. By administering an infusion of THC, the dose that was inhaled and absorbed during the passive exposure was estimated to be 3.2 micrograms/min.

Id Code
86061522
Authors
Morland J, Bugge A, Skuterud B, Steen A, Wethe GH, Kjeldsen T
Title
Cannabinoids in blood and urine after passive inhalation of Cannabis smoke.
Source
Journal of Forensic Sciences
Date
1985 Oct
Issue
30(4)
Pages
997-1002
Abstract
To test the possibility that cannabinoids are detectable following passive inhalation of Cannabis smoke the following study was performed. Five healthy volunteers who had previously never used Cannabis, passively inhaled Cannabis smoke for 30 min. Cannabis smoke was provided by other subjects smoking either marijuana or hashish cigarettes in a small closed car, containing approximately 1650 L of air. delta 9-Tetrahydrocannabinol (THC) could be detected in the blood of all passive smokers immediately after exposure in concentrations ranging from 1.3 to 6.3 ng/mL. At the same time total blood cannabinoid levels (assayed by radioimmunoassay [RIA] ) were higher than 13 ng/mL in four of the volunteers. Both THC and cannabinoid blood concentrations fell close to the cutoff limits of the respective assays during the following 2 h. Passive inhalation also resulted in the detection of cannabinoids in the urine by RIA and enzyme multiple immunoassay technique (EMIT) assays (above 13 and 20 ng/mL, respectively). It is concluded that the demonstration of cannabinoids in blood or urine is no unequivocal proof of active Cannabis smoking.

Id Code
90376398
Authors
Ahmad GR, Ahmad N
Title
Passive consumption of marijuana through milk: a low level chronic exposure to delta-9-tetrahydrocannabinol(THC).
Source
Journal of Toxicology - Clinical Toxicology
Date
1990
Issue
28(2)
Pages
255-60
Abstract
Cannabis sativa grows abundantly among other natural vegetation in the northern part of Pakistan. Buffalo, the common dairy animals of the region, are allowed to graze upon this vegetation. These animals ingest significant amounts of marijuana, which after absorption is metabolized into a number of psychoactive agents which are ultimately excreted through the urine and milk. This potentially contaminated milk is used by the people of the region. Depending upon the amount of milk ingested and the degree of contamination, the milk could result in a low to moderate level of chronic exposure to Delta-9-Tetrahydrocannabinol (THC) and other metabolites especially among the children raised on this milk. This research was conducted to investigate the extent of passive consumption of marijuana by the consumers of potentially contaminated milk. Urine and milk specimens were obtained from buffalo and were analyzed for 11-nor-delta-9-tetrahydrocannabinol-9-carboxylic acid (THC-COOH) which is a major metabolite for THC. The analysis was done by using gas chromatography/mass spectrometry. It was observed that during the months of June and July, 60 percent of the buffalo contained detectable levels of THC-COOH in their urine and 50 percent of these animals produced milk which was contaminated with THC or other metabolites. Analysis of the urine obtained from children with ages ranging from six months to 3 years, who were being raised on the milk from these animals, indicated that 29 percent of them had low levels of THC-COOH in their urine.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS)