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Cannabis Research - Medical Uses - asthma


Id Code
76017095
Authors
Tashkin DP, Shapiro BJ, Lee YE, Harper CE
Title
Effects of smoked marijuana in experimentally induced asthma.
Source
American Review of Respiratory Disease
Date
1975 Sep
Issue
112(3)
Pages
377-86
Abstract
After experimental induction of acute bronchospasm in 8 subjects with clinically stable bronchial asthma, effects of 500 mg of smoked marijuana (2.0 per cent delta9-tetrahydrocannabinol) on specific airway conductance and thoracic gas volume were compared with those of 500 mg of smoked placebo marijuana (0.0 per cent delta9-tetrahydrocannabinol), 0.25 ml of aerosolized saline, and 0.25 ml of aerosolized isoproterenol (1,250 mug). Bronchospasm was induced on 4 separate occasions, by inhalation of methacholine and, on four other occasions, by exercise on a bicycle ergometer or treadmill. Methacholine and exercise caused average decreases in specific airway conductance of 40 to 55 per cent and 30 to 39 per cent, respectively, and average increases in thoracic gas volume of 35 to 43 per cent and 25 to 35 per cent, respectively. After methacholine-induced bronchospasm, placebo marijuana and saline inhalation produced minimal changes in specific airway conductance and thoracic gas volume, whereas 2.0 per cent marijuana and isoproterenol each caused a prompt correction of the bronchospasm and associated hyperinflation. After exercise-induced bronchospasm, placebo marijuana and saline were followed by gradual recovery during 30 to 60 min, whereas 2.0 per cent marijuana and isoproterenol caused an immediate reversal of exercise-induced asthma and hyperinflation.

Id Code
77109999
Authors
Tashkin DP, Reiss S, Shapiro BJ, Calvarese B, Olsen JL, Lodge JW
Title
Bronchial effects of aerosolized delta 9-tetrahydrocannabinol in healthy and asthmatic subjects.
Source
American Review of Respiratory Disease
Date
1977 Jan
Issue
115(1)
Pages
57-65
Abstract
Effects on airway dynamics, heart rate, and the central nervous system of various doses of delta9-tetrahydrocannabinol administered in a random, double blind fashion using a Freon-propelled, metered-dose nebulizer were evaluated in 11 healthy men and 5 asthmatic subjects. Effects of aerosolized delta9-tetrahydrocannabinol were compared with aerosolized placebo and isoproterenol and with 20 mg of oral and smoked delta9-tetrahydrocannabinol. In the normal subjects, after 5 to 20 mg of aerosolized delta9-tetrahydrocannabinol, specific airway conductance increased immediately, reached a maximum (33 to 41 per cent increase) after 1 to 2 hours, and remained significantly greater than placebo values for 2 to 3 hours. The bronchodilator effect of aerosolized delta9-tetrahydrocannabinol was less than that of isoproterenol after 5 min, but significantly greater than that of isoproterenol after 1 to 3 hours. The magnitude of bronchodilatation after all doses of aerosolized delta9-tetrahydrocannabinol was comparable, but 5 mg of delta9-tetrahydrocannabinol caused a significantly smaller increase in heart rate and level of intoxication than the 20-mg dose. Smoked delta9-tetrahydrocannabinol produced greater cardiac and intoxicating effects than either aerosolized or oral delta9-tetrahydrocannabinol. Side effects of aerosolized delta9-tetrahydrocannabinol included slight cough and/or chest discomfort in 3 of the 11 normal subjects. Aerosolized delta9-tetrahydrocannabinol caused significant bronchodilatation in 3 of 5 asthmatic subjects, but caused moderate to severe bronchoconstriction associated with cough and chest discomfort in the other 2. These findings indicate that aerosolized delat9-tetrahydrocannabinol, although capable of causing significant bronchodilatation with minimal systemic side effects, has a local irritating effect on the airways, which may make it unsuitable for therapeutic use.

Id Code
78187064
Authors
Hartley JP, Nogrady SG, Seaton A
Title
Bronchodilator effect of delta1-tetrahydrocannabinol.
Source
British Journal of Clinical Pharmacology
Date
1978 Jun
Issue
5(6)
Pages
523-5
Abstract
1 delta1-trans-tetrahydrocannabinol, (delta1-THC) produces bronchodilatation in asthmatic patients. 2 Administered in 62 microliter metered volumes containing 50--200 microgram by inhalation from an aerosol device to patients judged to be in a steady state, it increased peak expiratory flow rate (PEFR) and forced expiratory volume in 1 second (FEV1). 3 The rate of onset, magnitude, and duration of the bronchodilator effect was dose related.

Id Code
77105329
Authors
Williams SJ, Hartley JP, Graham JD
Title
Bronchodilator effect of delta1-tetrahydrocannabinol administered by aerosol of asthmatic patients.
Source
Thorax
Date
1976 Dec
Issue
31(6)
Pages
720-3
Abstract
Ten volunteer inpatient asthmatics in a steady state were given a single inhalation of an aerosol (63 mul) delivered in random order, on each of three consecutive days, in the laboratory of a respiratory unit. Before, and for one hour after treatment the pulse, blood pressure (lying and standing), forced expiratory volume in 1 second (FEV1), forced vital capacity (FVC), peak flow rate (PFR), and self-rating mood scales (SRMS) were recorded. Treatments were placebo-ethanol only; delta1-tetrahydrocannabinol (THC) 200 mug in ethanol; or salbutamol 100 mug (Ventolin inhaler), administered double blind. Salbutamol and THC significantly improved ventilatory function. Maximal bronchodilatation was achieved more rapidly with salbutamol, but at 1 hour both drugs were equally effective. No cardiovascular or mood disturbance was detected, and plasma total cannabinoids at 15 minutes were undectable by radioimmunoassay. The mode of action of THC differs from that of sympathomimetic drugs, and it or a derivative may make a suitable adjuvant in the treatment of selected asthmatics.