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Cannabis Research - cannabis contents, cannabinoid ratios, THC contents


Authors
Baker PB, Taylor BJ, Gough TA
Title
The tetrahydrocannabinol and tetrahydrocannabinolic acid content of cannabis products.
Source
Journal of Pharmacy & Pharmacology
Date
1981 Jun
Issue
33(6)
Pages
369-72
Abstract
Cannabinoid acids readily decarboxylate to the corresponding cannabinoid. Methods are available for the determination of delta 9-tetrahydrocannabinol (THC) and its acids (THCA) and published data on the levels of these compounds in cannabis are summarized. Using gas and liquid chromatography, fresh cannabis (64 samples) and cannabis resin (26 samples) from different countries were examined. Wide variations in the relative amounts of THCA and THC in cannabis were found. For cannabis resin, a wide range of values was also found (0.5: 1 to 6.1: 1), the lower values being in resins from the Indian sub-continent and the higher values in resins from the Mediterranean area. Total THC values were in the range 1.0 - 10.6% in cannabis and 6.0 - 12.5% in cannabis resin.

Authors
Field BI, Arndt RR
Title
Cannabinoid compounds in South African Cannabis sativa L.
Source
Journal of Pharmacy & Pharmacology
Date
1980 Jan
Issue
32(1)
Pages
21-4
Abstract
Dagga (Cannabis sativa L.) samples were collected from various geographical regions of South Africa. These were classified into age, sex and plant part and the cannabinoids were analysed quantitatively by gas-liquid chromatography and mass spectrometry. Analytical results show that there appears to be at least three chemovariants of Cannabis sativa growing in South Africa with respect to relative cannabinoid content. One of these variants appears to be unique to Southern Africa. It also appears that South African C. sativa ranks among the world's more potent C. sativa variants in terms of its delta 9-tetrahydrocannabinol content.

Authors
Baker PB, Gough TA, Taylor BJ
Title
The physical and chemical features of Cannabis plants grown in the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland from seeds of known origin--Part II: second generation studies.
Source
Bulletin on Narcotics
Date
1983 Jan-Mar
Issue
35(1)
Pages
51-62
Abstract
A second generation of Cannabis plants has been grown from seeds produced by first generation plants which were raised in the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland from seeds taken from imported cannabis of known geographical origin and chemistry. The gross physical appearance of the second generation plants, in general, resembled their parents and the cannabis produced therefrom was not usually distinguishable from that derived from first generation plants. Although cannabinoid patterns were, in some cases, similar to those of both parents and original seedstock cannabis, there were many exceptions. The yields of cannabis were significantly higher than from first generation plants, but the tetrahydrocannabinol contents were lower. Although higher than in the original imported cannabis, the tetrahydrocannabinolic acid to tetrahydrocannabinol ratios in cannabis from second generation plants were lower than in cannabis produced from first generation plants.

Authors
Baker PB, Gough TA, Johncock SI, Taylor BJ, Wyles LT
Title
Variation in the THC content in illicitly imported Cannabis products--Part II.
Source
Bulletin on Narcotics
Date
1982 Jul-Dec
Issue
34(3-4)
Pages
101-8
Abstract
The tetrahydrocannabinol (THC) contents of 220 samples of fresh illicit Cannabis products seized on entry into the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland over the period 1979-1981 have been determined by gas chromatography. During that period there was a general increase in the quality of both cannabis and cannabis resin, but with wide variations in THC contents both within and between countries. Some very high quality samples of cannabis, cannabis resin and cannabis oil from the Indian sub-continent have been analysed. There have been considerable changes in the number of fresh samples from several countries, compared with the previous survey. Fresh cannabis oil samples were very rare during the period covered by this survey.

Authors
Baker PB, Gough TA, Taylor BJ
Title
The physical and chemical features of Cannabis plants grown in the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland from seeds of known origin.
Source
Bulletin on Narcotics
Date
1982 Jan-Mar
Issue
34(1)
Pages
27-36
Abstract
Cannabis plants have been grown in the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland from seeds taken from seizures of cannabis of known geographical origin and chemistry. The gross physical appearance and cannabinoid patterns of many of the cannabis samples produced in the United Kingdom were closely related to those of the parents. However, some notable exceptions were recorded. There were wide variations in actual tetrahydrocannabinol content between plants grown from different seedstock and rather smaller variations within the groups grown from the same seedstock. Cannabis produced in the united Kingdom and higher tetrahydrocannabinolic acid/tetrahyrocannabinol ratios than imported material.

Authors
Baker PB, Bagon KR, Gough TA
Title
Variation in the THC content in illicitly imported Cannabis products.
Source
Bulletin on Narcotics
Date
1980
Issue
32(4)
Pages
47-54
Abstract
The tetrahydrocannabinol (THC) content of 304 seizures of illicit Cannabis products was determined using gas chromatography. This procedure results in the conversion of THC acid to THC itself and thus gives the total THC content of the material, which reflects its potency as experienced by the smokers. The study was carried out over three years, thus enabling comparisons to be made between THC levels from a given country of origin over this time span in addition to any variations between the countries. In the early part of the study, herbal cannabis from South East Asia was consistently the best quality and that from the Caribbean the poorest quality. In the third year of the study, the material from South East Asia was in general no richer in THC than material from other areas of the world. Cannabis resins normally had higher THC contents than most herbal material, but the highest levels were found in "hash oil" from the Middle East and the Indian subcontinent.

Authors
ElSohly HN, Ma GE, Turner CE, ElSohly MA
Title
Constituents of Cannabis sativa, XXV. Isolation of two new dihydrostilbenes from a Panamanian variant.
Source
Journal of Natural Products
Date
1984 May-Jun
Issue
47(3)
Pages
445-52
Abstract
Two new dihydrostilbene compounds (named cannabistilbenes I and II) were isolated from a polar acidic fraction of a Panamanian variant of Cannabis sativa grown in Mississippi. The structure of cannabistilbene I was shown to be 3,4'-dihydroxy-5-methoxy-3'-(3-methylbut-2-enyl)-dihydrostilben e (1) from spectral data which was confirmed by synthesis. There is spectral evidence to indicate that cannabistilbene II could be represented by either structure 3 or 4.

Authors
Elsohly HN, Turner CE
Title
Constituents of Cannabis sativa L. XXII: isolation of spiro-indan and dihydrostilbene compounds from a Panamanian variant grown in Mississippi, United States of America.
Source
Bulletin on Narcotics
Date
1982 Apr-Jun
Issue
34(2)
Pages
51-6
Abstract
Three spiro-compounds, namely cannabispiran, dehydrocannabispiran and beta-cannabispiranol, and 2 dihydrostilbenes [3-(2-(3-hydroxy-4-methoxyphenyl)ethyl)-5-methoxyphenol and canniprene] were isolated from a polar fraction of a Panamanian variant of Cannabis sativa L. grown in Mississippi, United States of America. The plant material was extracted with 95% ethanol and the dried ethanol extract was then partitioned between chloroform and water. The chloroform fraction was fractionated between hexane and 3N sodium hydroxide solution. Acidification of the basic fraction followed by extraction with ether afforded a polar acidic fraction from which the above-mentioned compounds were isolated through repeated chromatography. The structures of the above compounds were determined by spectral means as well as by comparison with reference samples. The isolation of two dihydrostilbenes and three spiro-indan compounds from a single variant provides good support that the dihydrostilbenes are the natural precursors to the spiro-indan compounds.

Authors
Yamamoto I, Matsunaga T, Kobayashi H, Watanabe K, Yoshimura H
Title
Analysis and pharmacotoxicity of feruloyltyramine as a new constituent and p-coumaroyltyramine in Cannabis sativa L.
Source
Pharmacology, Biochemistry & Behavior
Date
1991 Nov
Issue
40(3)
Pages
465-9
Abstract
Feruloyltyramine (FT), a new amide compound, together with p-coumaroyltyramine (p-CT) was isolated and identified in ethanol extract of cannabis seeds. FT and p-CT were also detected in the roots, leaves and resin of Cannabis sativa L. The intracerebroventricular injection of these amides caused hypothermia and motor incoordination in mice, and the maximal effects were caused 160 to 240 min after the injection. Furthermore, p-CT also exhibited cataleptogenic effect in mice, although FT did not show any effect. These results suggest that these amide compounds may be responsible for some pharmacotoxicity of marihuana.

Id Code
78211988
Authors
Valle JR, Vieira JE, Aucelio JG, Valio IF
Title
Influence of photoperiodism on cannabinoid content of Cannabis sativa L.
Source
Bulletin on Narcotics
Date
1978 Jan-Mar
Issue
30(1)
Pages
67-8
Abstract
Cannabis sativa plants submitted to 10 and 12 hours of natural light showed different content in cannabinoids. An increase of exposure to natural light of only 2 hours a day, at least, doubled the average amoung of THC, but decreased that of cannabichromene.

Id Code
80047045
Authors
Boeren EG, Elsohly MA, Turner CE
Title
Cannabiripsol: a novel Cannabis constituent.
Source
Experientia
Date
1979 Oct 15
Issue
35(10)
Pages
1278-9
Abstract
Cannabiripsol [(-) (6aR, 9S, 10S, 10aR)9,10-dihydroxy-hexahydrocannabinol] (1), a new cannabinoid was isolated from a South African Cannabis variant. The structure was determined by spectral means and by synthesis.

Id Code
79065322
Authors
Elsohly MA, Boeren EG, Turner CE
Title
(+/-)9,10-Dihydroxy-delta6a(10a)-tetrahydrocannabinol and (+/-)8,9-dihydroxy-delta6a(10a)-tetrahydrocannabinol: 2 new cannabinoids from Cannabis sativa L.
Source
Experientia
Date
1978 Sep 15
Issue
34(9)
Pages
1127-8
Abstract
The structures of 2 new polyhydroxylated cannabinoids, (+/-)9,10-dihydroxy-delta6a(10a)-tetrahydrocannabinol and (+/-)8,9-dihydroxy-delta6a(10a)-tetrahydrocannabinol, obtained from a hexane extract of an Indian Cannabis variant were determined by spectral means and correlation with cannabinol.

Id Code
78068704
Authors
Elsohly MA, Turner CE, Phoebe CH Jr, Knapp JE, Schiff PL Jr, Slatkin DJ
Title
Anhydrocannabisativine, a new alkaloid from Cannabis sativa L.
Source
Journal of Pharmaceutical Sciences
Date
1978 Jan
Issue
67(1)
Pages
124
Abstract
Ethanol extracts of the leaves and roots of a Mexican variant of Cannabis sativa L. (marijuana) afforded, after partitioning and chromatography, the new spermidine alkaloid, anhydrocannabisativine. The structure was determined by spectral analysis and semisynthesis.

Id Code
78001902
Authors
Hillestad A, Wold JK, Paulsen BS
Title
Structural studies of water-soluble glycoproteins from Cannabis sativa L.
Source
Carbohydrate Research
Date
1977 Aug
Issue
57
Pages
135-44
Abstract
Two carbohydrate-protein fractions, isolated from Cannabis sativa L. by extraction with water and chromatography of DEAE-cellulose, contained arabinose, galactose, glucose, mannose, galacturonic acid, 2-acetamido-2-deoxyglucose, and 2-acetamido-2-deoxygalactose. The structure of the carbohydrate moieties was investigated by methylation analysis and Smith degradation. A high percentage of end-groups indicates a large degree of branching, glucose and galactose being the main branch-points, linked at C-3 and C6. The hexoses are also present as unbranched residues in the chain, largely as (1 leads to 3)- and (1 leads to 4)-linked units and as end-groups. Arabinofuranosyl units constitute the main part of the non-reducing end-groups, and are also present as part of the chain. The polysaccharide chains are probably linked to protein through the hydroxyl group of hydroxyproline.

Id Code
77113083
Authors
Marshman JA, Popham RE, Yawney CD
Title
A note on the cannabinoid content of Jamaican ganja.
Source
Bulletin on Narcotics
Date
1976 Oct-Dec
Issue
28(4)
Pages
63-8
Abstract
There has been considerable recent interest in the study of Jamaican ganja users as a potentially valuable source of information on the effects of long-term cannabis consumption. However, reported data on the cannabinoid content of Jamaican material have been limited to those of Rubin and Comitas for a small number of samples of unknown representativeness. In the present study, the cannabinoid content was determined on 36 samples purchased from various ganja dealers at two different periods, derived from crops treated differently with respect to fertilization, and representing the range of types locally considered to differ in quality or potency. The analytical results agreed well with those of Rubin and Comitas, and indicated that samples with a delta9-THC content of 4.0% or more were apt to be comparatively rare. The median value was 2.3% by weight. Some of the variation in the THC content of the samples was clearly attributable to the different seasons in which they were purchased, and some may have been due to differences in the type of fertilizer used in cultivation. Local judgement as to the potency of samples proved generally sound, although by no means infallible.

Id Code
86216789
Authors
Felby S, Nielsen E
Title
Cannabinoid content of cannabis grown on the Danish island of Bornholm.
Source
Bulletin on Narcotics
Date
1985 Oct-Dec
Issue
37(4)
Pages
87-94
Abstract
The analysis in 1983 of representative samples taken from fruiting tops of seized cannabis plants illicitly grown in 19 localities on the Danish island of Bornholm showed that the average (mean) content of the total tetrahydrocannabinol (delta 9-tetrahydrocannabinol (THC) + delta 9-tetrahydrocannabinolic acid) was approximately 1.55 per cent, ranging from 0.1 to 4.2 per cent. There was no significant difference in the total THC content of cannabis plants from the Danish island of Bornholm and the content found by other authors in cannabis plants grown during the period from 1968 to 1972 in Afghanistan, India, Mexico, South Africa and Thailand. However, studies carried out on fresh cannabis seized on entry into the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland during the period 1975-1981 showed a larger content of THC (ranging from 2.3 to 4.9 per cent) than in cannabis plants from Bornholm.

Id Code
86216787
Authors
Taylor BJ, Neal JD, Gough TA
Title
The physical and chemical features of Cannabis plants grown in the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland from seeds of known origin--Part III: Third and fourth generation studies.
Source
Bulletin on Narcotics
Date
1985 Oct-Dec
Issue
37(4)
Pages
75-81
Abstract
Two further generations of Cannabis plants have been grown from seeds produced by earlier generation plants which were raised in the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland in 1980 and 1981. The original seedstocks were from known countries of origin. Although there are exceptions, both the physical and chemical characteristics of the third and fourth generation plants generally resemble those of their parents. The yields of cannabis vary substantially from year to year. The total tetrahydrocannabinol contents also vary, but are comparable with the levels in the original plants. Tetrahydrocannabinolic acid continues to predominate over free tetrahydrocannabinol and is much higher than in the original plants.

Id Code
86216786
Authors
Cortis G, Luchi P, Palmas M
Title
Experimental cultivation of cannabis plants in the Mediterranean area.
Source
Bulletin on Narcotics
Date
1985 Oct-Dec
Issue
37(4)
Pages
67-73
Abstract
In research carried out in 1982, which included the cultivation of cannabis plants with low, medium and high levels of delta 9-tetrahydrocannabinol (THC), the authors have determined the parameters for individualization and classification of cannabis plants according to their intoxicant potential. This can help to provide courts of law with valid supportive expertise on cannabis trafficking cases. The parameters are the percentages of THC in cannabinoids and in the dried substance of a plant, as well as the percentage of cannabinoids in the dried substance. On the basis of these parameters, the authors have found that a cannabis plant in which the percentage of THC exceeds 50 per cent of the total amount of cannabinoids of the extractable resin and 0.3 per cent of the total amount of dried substance, and in which the amounts of resin and cannabinoids are substantial, has a considerable intoxicant potential and is liable to be used for illicit production of cannabis for abuse. On the contrary, a plant with a THC level below 50 per cent of the cannabinoids and 0.3 per cent of the dried substance, in addition to a low level of total cannabinoids, has low intoxicant potential and can be used in industry for the production of oil and rope. On the basis of these parameters it is also possible to predict the intoxicant potential of a young cannabis plant harvested at a relatively early stage of its development.

Id Code
86216785
Authors
Avico U, Pacifici R, Zuccaro P
Title
Variations of tetrahydrocannabinol content in cannabis plants to distinguish the fibre-type from drug-type plants.
Source
Bulletin on Narcotics
Date
1985 Oct-Dec
Issue
37(4)
Pages
61-5
Abstract
There are many different species of cannabis plants, but their psychoactive properties mainly depend on the concentration of tetrahydrocannabinol (THC), which may vary according to genetic factors and environmental influences. On the basis of the THC content all cannabis plants are divided into fibre-type and drug-type plants. The fibre-type plant does not exceed 0.4 per cent of THC while the drug-type plant usually contains up to 5 per cent of THC, though higher percentages (up to 10 per cent) have been reported. A study of the characteristics of cannabis seeds and the influence of environmental conditions on the content of THC in cannabis plants grown in northern, southern and insular Italy has shown that the fibre-type plants contain mean values of THC in a range from 0.058 to 0.299 per cent. The content of THC in the drug-type plants grown in Sicily and Tuscany ranged from 0.82 to 1.31 per cent +/- 0.49 per cent. In 1984, the Commission of the European Communities prepared a regulation to prevent diffusion of the drug-type cannabis, providing that raw material could not be imported if its THC content exceeded 0.5 per cent from 1984 to 1987 and after that period the maximum limit would be set up to 0.3 per cent.

Id Code
85225690
Authors
Barrett ML, Gordon D, Evans FJ
Title
Isolation from Cannabis sativa L. of cannflavin--a novel inhibitor of prostaglandin production.
Source
Biochemical Pharmacology
Date
1985 Jun 1
Issue
34(11)
Pages
2019-24
Abstract
The isolation from Cannabis sativa L. of an inhibitor of prostaglandin (PG) E2 production by cultured rheumatoid synovial cells is described. This agent, for which the name Cannflavin has been coined, is distinct from cannabinoids on the basis of isolation procedure, preliminary structural analysis and biological properties. The activity of Cannflavin has been compared with several established anti-inflammatory drugs and the major cannabinoids.

Id Code
91311547
Authors
Pitts JE, O'Neil PJ, Leggo KP
Title
Variation in the THC content of illicitly imported Cannabis products--1984-1989.
Source
Journal of Pharmacy & Pharmacology
Date
1990 Dec
Issue
42(12)
Pages
817-20
Abstract
The tetrahydrocannabinol (THC) content of more than 180 samples of fresh illicit Cannabis products, seized by H.M. Customs and Excise on entry into Great Britain and Northern Ireland over the period 1984-1989, has been determined by gas chromatography. The average THC content of herbal cannabis remained high due to good quality cannabis from Jamaica and the USA, but that of cannabis resin was slightly lower. Resin from Morocco has changed significantly in its physical appearance. There was no fresh seizure of cannabis oil in this period.

Id Code
88274689
Authors
Mikuriya TH, Aldrich MR
Title
Cannabis 1988. Old drug, new dangers. The potency question. [Review]
Source
Journal of Psychoactive Drugs
Date
1988 Jan-Mar
Issue
20(1)
Pages
47-55
Abstract
Observation of the real world of social marijuana use, where autotitration is the norm, renders the scare tactics of the new marijuana proponents not only inaccurate but irrelevant. There is much published evidence about the availability of highly potent varieties of cannabis from the nineteenth century through the present day. The effects attributed to the new marijuana are the same ones debated for centuries in many different cultures. The assertion that "all marijuana research to date has been done on 1 or 2 percent THC material" (Cohen 1968) ignores several thousand years of human experience with the drug. The old medical cannabis extracts were stronger than most of the forms now available, though the potency of illicit hash oils by the mid-1970's was approaching the level of medicinal preparations available before their removal from the USP. While it may be true that sinsemilla is more widely available than 10 or 15 years ago, its potency has not changed significantly from the 2.4 to 9.5 percent THC materials available in 1973-1974 (see Table I), or the five to 14 percent sinsemilla of 1975 (Perry 1977). The range of potencies available then (marijuana at 0.1% to 7.8% THC, averaging 2.0% to 5.0% THC by 1975) was approximately the same as that reported now. With such a range, the evidence simply cannot support the argument by Cohen (1986) that marijuana is "ten or more times more potent than the product smoked ten years ago." And to say that marijuana potency has increased 1,400 percent since any date in history is patent nonsense.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS)
References
98

Id Code
89080515
Authors
Brenneisen R, elSohly MA
Title
Chromatographic and spectroscopic profiles of Cannabis of different origins: Part I.
Source
Journal of Forensic Sciences
Date
1988 Nov
Issue
33(6)
Pages
1385-404
Abstract
High-resolution capillary gas chromatography with flame ionization detection and mass spectrometry (GC and GC/MS) and high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) were used to establish complex chemical profiles (chemical signatures) of Cannabis samples of known origin. Over 100 compounds could be differentiated, including noncannabinoids (terpenes, alkanes) as well as minor and major cannabinoids and their acids. A characteristic peak pattern was found within a limited number of specimens of identical origin. Correlation studies on the basis of peak area ratios [A(x)/A(i.s.)] showed the feasibility of tracing Cannabis chemically to its country of origin. Several forensic science applications for the chromatographic and spectroscopic profiles of confiscated Cannabis samples are discussed, such as detection of additives (phencyclidine), differentiation of chemotypes, and monitoring of tetrahydrocannabinol (THC) potency.

Id Code
86164895
Authors
Barrett ML, Scutt AM, Evans FJ
Title
Cannflavin A and B, prenylated flavones from Cannabis sativa L.
Source
Experientia
Date
1986 Apr 15
Issue
42(4)
Pages
452-3
Abstract
Two novel prenylated flavones, termed Cannflavin A and B, were isolated from the cannabinoid free ethanolic extract of Cannabis sativa L. Both compounds inhibited prostaglandin E2 production by human rheumatoid synovial cells in culture.

Id Code
95283785
Authors
Sakakibara I, Ikeya Y, Hayashi K, Okada M, Maruno M
Title
Three acyclic bis-phenylpropane lignanamides from fruits of Cannabis sativa.
Source
Phytochemistry
Date
1995 Mar
Issue
38(4)
Pages
1003-7
Abstract
Three new acyclic bis-phenylpropane lignanamides, named cannabisin E, F and G were isolated from the fruits of Cannabis sativa. Their structures have been elucidated based on spectral and chemical evidence.

Id Code
93108232
Authors
Pitts JE, Neal JD, Gough TA
Title
Some features of Cannabis plants grown in the United Kingdom from seeds of known origin.
Source
Journal of Pharmacy & Pharmacology
Date
1992 Dec
Issue
44(12)
Pages
947-51
Abstract
The cannabinoid content of UK-grown plants (up to the 6th generation) from Moroccan, Sri Lankan and Zambian seedstock was determined by TLC, GLC and HPLC. All plants from the 5th and 6th series resembled their parents, and UK-grown plants were always much greener than those grown overseas. Cannabinoid content remained broadly typical of the source countries. However, tetrahydrocannabinolic acid (THCA) consistently predominated over tetrahydrocannabinol (THC) to a far greater extent than in the original plants; the THCA/THC ratio was 17 in UK-grown plants compared with 2.0 in the plants from the original areas. Two types of plant emerged from the Moroccan seedstock, one tending to increased cannabidiol (CBD), the other tending to zero levels of this component. The first generation Sri Lankan plants revealed one type of plant with an increased CBD/THC ratio (1.7 compared with 0.11) but this returned to the original value in the succeeding generations. Other Sri Lankan plants had low or undetectable levels of CBD. Moroccan and Sri Lankan CBD-rich plants did not contain cannabichromene, although this cannabinoid was found in THC-rich plants. Zambian plants did not appear to show such a pattern. Zambian seedstock plants had total tetrahydrocannabivarin (diol and acid) levels greater than THC but the ratio was progressively reversed in succeeding generations. The study concludes that the ratios of particular cannabinoids is greatly influenced by the environment.

Authors
- Odani S, Odani S
Title
- Isolation and primary structure of a methionine- and cystine-rich seed protein of Cannabis sativa.
Language
- Eng
Date
- 1998 Apr
Issue
- 0916-8451
Source
- Biosci Biotechnol Biochem
Pages
- 650-4
Country
- JAPAN
Abstract
- A 10-kDa protein was isolated from resting seeds of hemp (Cannabis sativa) by buffer extraction, gel filtration, ion-exchange chromatography, and reversed-phase high-pressure liquid chromatography. The protein did not inhibit bovine trypsin. It consisted of subunits composed of 27 and 61 residues and was held together by two disulfide bonds. The complete amino acid sequence was identified by protein analysis, and had 20 mole% of amino acids containing sulfur. The protein was most similar to a methionine-rich protein of Brazil nut (Bertholletia excelsa) and to Mabinlin IV, a sweetness-inducing protein of Capparis masaikai. The high methionine content and the absence of trypsin inhibitory activity suggested that the seed protein can be used to improve the nutritional quality of plant food-stuffs.
Research Institute
- Department of Home Economics, Faculty of Education, Niigata University, Japan.
Source
- Biosci Biotechnol Biochem 1998 Apr;62(4):650-4