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Cannabis Research - driving and testing


Authors
Cimbura G, Lucas DM, Bennett RC, Warren RA, Simpson HM
Title
Incidence and toxicological aspects of drugs detected in 484 fatally injured drivers and pedestrians in Ontario.
Source
Journal of Forensic Sciences
Date
1982 Oct
Issue
27(4)
Pages
855-67
Abstract
Results are presented of a comprehensive drug study carried out on specimens from drivers and pedestrians fatally injured in Ontario. Toxicological analyses were regularly performed on blood and urine and occasionally on vitreous humor, stomach contents, and liver. The analytical procedures could detect and quantitate a wide variety of drugs including such illicit drugs as Cannabis. With respect to drivers, alcohol was found in 57% of the study sample and drugs other than alcohol, in 26%. However, in only 9.5% of the drivers were psychoactive drugs (other than alcohol) detected in the blood in concentrations that may adversely affect driving skills. Delta-9-Tetrahydrocannabinol and diazepam accounted for a majority of the findings in this category.

Authors
Dackis CA, Pottash AL, Annitto W, Gold MS
Title
Persistence of urinary marijuana levels after supervised abstinence.
Source
American Journal of Psychiatry
Date
1982 Sep
Issue
139(9)
Pages
1196-8
Abstract
The authors present a case report of the presence of urinary cannabinoids during 21 days of supervised abstinence from chronic marijuana use and provide data on 6 similar cases. They discuss the theoretical implications of the persistence of cannabinoids.

Authors
Mason AP, McBay AJ
Title
Ethanol, marijuana, and other drug use in 600 drivers killed in single-vehicle crashes in North Carolina, 1978-1981.
Source
Journal of Forensic Sciences
Date
1984 Oct
Issue
29(4)
Pages
987-1026
Abstract
Although the use of ethanol, marijuana, and other drugs may be detrimental to driving safety, this has been established by direct epidemiological evidence only for ethanol. In this study, the incidences of detection of ethanol (and other volatile substances), delta-9-tetrahydrocannabinol (THC), barbiturates, cocaine and benzoylecgonine, opiates, and phencyclidine were determined in an inclusive population of 600 verified single-vehicle operator fatalities that occurred in North Carolina in 1978 to 1981. The incidence of detection of amphetamines and methaqualone were determined for drivers accepted for study during the first two years (n = 340) and the last year (n = 260), respectively. Blood concentrations of 11-nor-deta-9-tetrahydrocannabinol-9-carboxylic acid (9-carboxy-THC) were determined in THC positive drivers. EMIT cannabinoid assays were performed on blood specimens from all drivers accepted for study during the third year, and the feasibility of using the EMIT cannabinoid assay as a screening method for cannabinoids in forensic blood specimens was investigated. The incidence of detection of ethanol (79.3%) was far greater than the incidences determined for THC (7.8%), methaqualone (6.2%), and barbiturates (3.0%). Other drugs were detected rarely, or were not detected. Blood ethanol concentrations (BECs) were usually high; 85.5% of the drivers whose bloods contained ethanol and 67.8% of all drivers had BECs greater than or equal to 1.0 g/L. Drug concentrations were usually within or were below accepted therapeutic or active ranges. Only a small number of drivers could have been impaired by drugs, and most of them had high BECs. Multiple drug use (discounting ethanol) was comparatively rare. Ethanol was the only drug tested for that appears to have a significantly adverse effect on driving safety.

Authors
Gjerde H, Kinn G
Title
Impairment in drivers due to cannabis in combination with other drugs.
Source
Forensic Science International
Date
1991 Jul-Aug
Issue
50(1)
Pages
57-60
Abstract
Blood samples from 425 suspected drugged drivers who were clinically impaired and negative for alcohol were analysed. Fifty-six percent of the samples were positive for tetrahydrocannabinol (THC). Tetrahydrocannabinol-positive blood samples were analysed for amphetamines, barbiturates, benzodiazepines, cocaine metabolites and opiates. Eighty-two percent of the samples were found to be positive for one or more drugs in addition to THC, and the concentrations of these drugs were often high. Thus, THC in combination with other drugs seems to be a much more frequent reason for impairment than THC alone among Norwegian drugged drivers.

Id Code
91037852
Authors
Cimbura G, Lucas DM, Bennett RC, Donelson AC
Title
Incidence and toxicological aspects of cannabis and ethanol detected in 1394 fatally injured drivers and pedestrians in Ontario (1982-1984).
Source
Journal of Forensic Sciences
Date
1990 Sep
Issue
35(5)
Pages
1035-41
Abstract
A comprehensive epidemiological study of the involvement of cannabis and ethanol in motor vehicle fatalities in the Province of Ontario, Canada, is described. The study is based on toxicological analyses of blood and, when available, urine specimens. Ethanol was determined by headspace gas chromatography (GC). For cannabis, the methods employed were radioimmunoassays (RIAs) for screening and gas chromatography/mass spectrometry (GC/MS) for the determination of delta-9-tetrahydrocannabinol (THC) in blood. The study sample consisted of 1169 drivers and 225 pedestrians. THC was detected in the blood of 127 driver victims (10.9%) in concentrations ranging from 0.2 to 37 ng/mL, with a mean of 3.1 +/- 5.0 ng/mL. Ethanol was found in 667 driver victims (57.1%), in concentrations ranging from 9 to 441 mg/100 mL, with a mean of 165.8 +/- 79.5 mg/100 mL. For pedestrians, the incidence of THC and ethanol in the blood was 7.6 and 53.3%, respectively. The incidence of THC in the driver victims in this study constitutes an approximately threefold increase over the results of an Ontario study completed in 1979. At least a part of the increase may be attributed to interstudy differences in analytical methodology for cannabinoids.

Id Code
90083545
Authors
Marks DF, MacAvoy MG
Title
Divided attention performance in cannabis users and non-users following alcohol and cannabis separately and in combination.
Source
Psychopharmacology
Date
1989
Issue
99(3)
Pages
397-401
Abstract
The effect of delta 9-tetrahydrocannabinol (delta 9-THC) and alcohol, singly and in combination, on divided attention performance was investigated in cannabis users and non-users who were matched for alcohol use. Both cannabis and alcohol produced decrements in central and peripheral signal detections. Drug and alcohol effects were greater for signal presentations in the periphery. Cannabis users were less impaired in peripheral signal detection than non-users while intoxicated by cannabis and/or alcohol. These findings suggest the development of tolerance and cross-tolerance in regular cannabis users and/or the ability to compensate for intoxication effects.

Id Code
89196217
Authors
Budd RD, Muto JJ, Wong JK
Title
Drugs of abuse found in fatally injured drivers in Los Angeles County.
Source
Drug & Alcohol Dependence
Date
1989 Apr
Issue
23(2)
Pages
153-8
Abstract
Blood or urine specimens from nearly 600 fatally injured drivers in two Los Angeles County studies were analyzed for the presence of alcohol and other drugs of abuse, including PCP, cocaine, opiates and marijuana. The results of the preliminary study indicate that 65 out of 102 fatally injured drivers had used alcohol and/or another drug of abuse - 34 had used alcohol only, 12 had used one or more other drug(s) of abuse, and 19 had used alcohol in combination with another drug of abuse. The results of the larger follow-up study, begun a year later, indicate a continued high level of both alcohol use (41.5%) and marijuana use (19%) with moderate cocaine usage (8%) and low levels (less than 2%) of barbiturate and PCP usage.

Id Code
92311891
Authors
Kielland KB
Title
[Urinary excretion of cannabis metabolites].
Language
Norwegian
Source
Tidsskrift for Den Norske Laegeforening
Date
1992 May 10
Issue
112(12)
Pages
1585-6
Abstract
Urine testing is increasingly used to detect drug abuse, most commonly by easily performed immunological tests. There is large interpersonal variation in the excretion time of cannabinoids. Excretion times of up to 11 weeks have been demonstrated. In cases with a long excretion time a negative test result may be followed by a positive result without concomitant abuse. We describe a case where cannabinoid metabolites in urine were detected by a routine immunological method (Abbotts ADx) after 95 days of supervised abstinence. It is important that personnel evaluating test results have a thorough knowledge of possible pitfalls.

Authors
- Logan BK, Schwilke EW
Title
- Drug and alcohol use in fatally injured drivers in Washington State.
Language
- Eng
Date
- 1996 May
Issue
- 0022-1198
Source
- J Forensic Sci
Pages
- 505-10
Country
- UNITED STATES
Abstract
- Blood and/or urine from fatally injured drivers in Washington State were collected and tested for the presence of drugs and alcohol. Drug and/or alcohol use was a factor in 52% of all fatalities. Among single vehicle accidents, alcohol use was a factor in 61% of cases versus 30% for multiple vehicle accidents. Drugs most commonly encountered were marijuana (11%), cocaine (3%), amphetamines (2%), together with a variety of depressant prescription medications. Trends noted included an association of depressant use with higher blood alcohol levels, while marijuana use was associated with lower blood alcohol levels. Marijuana use was noted to be most prominent in the 15-30 year age group, stimulant use in the 21-40 year old group, and prescription depressant use was more prevelant in the 45 + age group. Drug use demographics in this population are consistent with those noted in other jurisdictions.
Research Institute
- Department of Laboratory Medicine, University of Washington, Seattle, 98134-2027, USA.
Source
- J Forensic Sci 1996 May;41(3):505-10

Authors
- Sugrue M, Seger M, Dredge G, Davies DJ, Ieraci S, Bauman A, Deane SA, Sloane D
Title
- Evaluation of the prevalence of drug and alcohol abuse in motor vehicle trauma in south western Sydney.
Language
- Eng
Date
- 1995 Dec
Issue
- 0004-8682
Source
- Aust N Z J Surg
Pages
- 853-6
Country
- AUSTRALIA
Abstract
- This study estimated prospectively the prevalence of high drug and alcohol levels in road trauma cases who met the criteria for activation of the Liverpool Hospital's trauma team. Urine analysis of road trauma victims between October 1992 and October 1993 was undertaken for drug and alcohol estimation. A total of 164 drivers were studied. A urine alcohol concentration (UAC) exceeding 0.08 g/dL was detected in 27 drivers (16.5%). Cannabinoids were detected in the urine of 25 drivers (15.2%), in 17 the concentrations exceeded 400 ng/mL. In one instance amphetamine, cocaine and heroin were detected in the same injured driver. Combined use of alcohol with some other drugs was detected in only four drivers. Alcohol and cannabinoid levels were prevalent in the urine of injured drivers in this study, particularly in young males who remain over-represented in the group of injured drivers. In the population surveyed other drugs were rarely detected. The role of cannabinoids in road trauma and the use of cannabinoids in young male drivers will however need to be monitored more extensively.
Research Institute
- Department of Trauma, Liverpool Hospital, Sydney, New South Wales, Australia.
Source
- Aust N Z J Surg 1995 Dec;65(12):853-6

Authors
- Marquet P, Delpla PA, Kerguelen S, Bremond J, Facy F, Garnier M, Guery B, Lhermitte M, Mathe D, Pelissier AL, Renaudeau C, Vest P, Seguela JP
Title
- Prevalence of drugs of abuse in urine of drivers involved in road accidents in France: a collaborative study.
Language
- Eng
Date
- 1998 Jul
Issue
- 0022-1198
Source
- J Forensic Sci
Pages
- 806-11
Country
- UNITED STATES
Abstract
- The collaborative, anonymous, case-control study was intended to determine the prevalence of opiates, cocaine metabolites, cannabinoids and amphetamines in the urine of drivers injured in road accidents and to compare these values with those of non-accident subjects ("patients") in France. Recruitment was performed nationwide in the emergency departments of five hospitals and comprised 296 "drivers" aged 18 to 35 and 278 non-traumatic "patients" in the same age range. Females represented 28.4% of "drivers" and 44.2% of "patients." Screening for drugs in urine was performed by fluorescence polarization immunoassays in each center. Each positive result was verified using gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS), in a single laboratory. Statistical analysis comprised single-step logistic regression and simultaneously took account of confounding factors and the final differences in prevalence values between the two populations or different subgroups. Cannabinoids were found in 13.9% of drivers (16.0% of males and 8.3% of females, p < 0.05) and 7.5% of patients (12.3% of males, 1.6% of females, p < 0.0001); only in females was this prevalence higher in injured drivers than in patients (p < 0.05). Opiates were present in 10.5% of drivers' and 10.4% of patients' urine samples (NS), and were more frequent in urine samples positive for cannabinoids, in drivers (p < 0.01) as well as in patients (p < 0.001). The prevalence of cocaine metabolites in drivers and patients was 1.0 and 1.1% and that of amphetamines 1.4 and 2.5%, respectively. No causal relationship between drugs and accidents should be inferred from this retrospective study. Nevertheless, the high prevalence of cannabis and opiate (licit or illicit) use in young people, whether injured drivers or patients, has potential implications for road traffic safety in France. Cocaine and amphetamines did not appear to be a major problem, unlike the experience in other countries.
Research Institute
- Department of Pharmacology-Toxicology and Emergency Care Unit, University Hospital, Limoges, France.
Source
- J Forensic Sci 1998 Jul;43(4):806-11

Authors
- Costantino A, Schwartz RH, Kaplan P
Title
- Hemp oil ingestion causes positive urine tests for delta 9- tetrahydrocannabinol carboxylic acid.
Language
- Eng
Date
- 1997 Oct
Issue
- 0146-4760
Source
- J Anal Toxicol
Pages
- 482-5
Country
- UNITED STATES
Abstract
- A hemp oil product (Hemp Liquid Gold) was purchased from a specialty food store. Fifteen milliliters was consumed by seven adult volunteers. Urine samples were taken from the subjects before ingestion and at 8, 24, and 48 h after the dose was taken. All specimens were screened by enzyme immunoassay with SYVA EMIT II THC 20, THC 50, and THC 100 kits. The tetrahydrocannabinol carboxylic acid (THCA) concentration was determined on all samples by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC- MS) (5). A total of 18 postingestion samples were submitted. Fourteen of the samples screened above the 20-ng cutoff, seven were above the 50- ng cutoff, and two screened greater than the 100-ng cutoff. All of the postingestion samples showed the presence of THCA by GC-MS.
Research Institute
- American Medical Laboratory, Chantilly, Virginia 20151, USA.
Source
- J Anal Toxicol 1997 Oct;21(6):482-5

Authors
- Fortner N, Fogerson R, Lindman D, Iversen T, Armbruster D
Title
- Marijuana-positive urine test results from consumption of hemp seeds in food products.
Language
- Eng
Date
- 1997 Oct
Issue
- 0146-4760
Source
- J Anal Toxicol
Pages
- 476-81
Country
- UNITED STATES
Abstract
- Commercially available snack bars and other foodstuffs prepared from pressed hemp seeds were ingested by volunteers. Urine specimens were collected for 24 h after ingestion of the foodstuffs containing hemp seeds and tested for marijuana using an EMIT immunoassay and gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS). Specimens from individuals who ate one hemp seed bar demonstrated little marijuana immunoreactivity, and only one specimen screened positive at a 20-ng/mL cutoff. Specimens from individuals who ate two hemp seed bars showed increased immunoreactivity, and five specimens screened positive at a 20-ng/mL cutoff. A single specimen yielded a quantitative GC-MS value (0.6 ng/mL), but it failed to meet reporting criteria. Several specimens from individuals who ate three cookies made from hemp seed flour and butter screened positive at both 50- and 20-ng/mL cutoffs. Two specimens produced quantitative GC-MS values (0.7 and 3.1 ng/mL), but they failed to meet reporting criteria. Several specimens also tested positive with an FDA-approved on-site marijuana-screening device. Hemp seeds similar to those used in the foodstuffs did not demonstrate the presence of marijuana when tested by GC-MS. In this study, ingestion of hemp seed food products resulted in urine specimens that screened positive for marijuana. No specimens gave a GC-MS quantitative value above the limit of detection for marijuana.
Research Institute
- PharmChem Laboratories, Inc., Menlo Park, California 94025, USA.
Source
- J Anal Toxicol 1997 Oct;21(6):476-81

Authors
- Lehmann T, Sager F, Brenneisen R
Title
- Excretion of cannabinoids in urine after ingestion of cannabis seed oil [see comments]
Language
- Eng
Date
- 1997 Sep
Issue
- 0146-4760
Source
- J Anal Toxicol
Pages
- 373-5
Country
- UNITED STATES
Abstract
- Gas chromatographic-mass spectrometric (GC-MS) quantitation of 25 cannabis sed oils determined delta 9-tetrahydrocannabinol (THC) concentrations from 3 to 1500 micrograms/g oil. In a pilot study, the morning urine of six volunteers who had ingested 11 or 22 g of the oil, which contained the highest THC content (1500 micrograms/g), was collected for six days. The urine samples were screened by immunoassay, and the content of 11-nor-9-carboxy-delta 9-THC (THCCOOH) was determined by GC-MS. Urine samples were found cannabis positive for up to six days with THCCOOH-equivalent concentrations up to 243 ng/mL. by the Abuscreen OnLine immunoassay and THCCOOH contents from 5 to 431 ng/mL by the GC-MS method. All subjects reported THC-specific psychotropic effects.
Research Institute
- Institute of Pharmacy, University of Bern, Switzerland.
Comment
- Comment in: J Anal Toxicol 1998 Jan-Feb;22(1):80-1
Source
- J Anal Toxicol 1997 Sep;21(5):373-5

Authors
- Struempler RE, Nelson G, Urry FM
Title
- A positive cannabinoids workplace drug test following the ingestion of commercially available hemp seed oil [see comments]
Language
- Eng
Date
- 1997 Jul-Aug
Issue
- 0146-4760
Source
- J Anal Toxicol
Pages
- 283-5
Country
- UNITED STATES
Abstract
- A commercially available health food product of cold-pressed hemp seed oil ingested by one volunteer twice a day for 4 1/2 days (135 mL total). Urine specimens collected from the volunteer were subjected to standard workplace urine drug testing procedures, and the following concentrations of 11-nor-delta9- tetrahydrocannabinol carboxylic acid (9-THCA) were detected: 41 ng/mL 9-THCA at 45 h, 49 ng/mL at 69 h, and 55 ng/mL at 93 h. Ingestion was discontinued after 93 h, and the following concentrations were detected: 68 ng/mL at 108 h, 57 ng/mL at 117 h, 31 ng/mL at 126 h, and 20 ng/mL at 142 h. The first specimen that tested negative (50 ng/mL initial immunoassay test, 15 ng/mL confirmatory gas chromatographic-mass spectrometric test) was at 146 h, which was 53 h after the last hemp seed oil ingestion. Four subsequent specimens taken to 177 h were also negative. This study indicates that a workplace urine drug test positive for cannabinoids may arise from the consumption of commercially available cold-pressed hemp seed oil.
Research Institute
- ARUP Laboratories, Inc., Salt Lake City, Utah 84108, USA.
Comment
- Comment in: J Anal Toxicol 1998 Jan-Feb;22(1):80-1
Source
- J Anal Toxicol 1997 Jul-Aug;21(4):283-5